Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Common to rare and local.
HABITAT: Inhabits open pine forests and pine barrens, especially jack pine in Minnesota and upland southern pines. Generally avoids tall, moist, and dense coniferous forests.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Open pine forests.
NEST: Builds nests saddled on horizontal limbs of conifers 8 to 80 (usually 30 to 50) feet above the ground, usually far out from the tree trunk and well concealed in foliage.
FOOD: Gleans its food from tree trunks, larger branches, and leaves. In the summer, mostly eats insects and some spiders. In winter, also eats pine seeds, wild fruits and berries, and grass and weed seeds.
REFERENCES: Bull and Farrand 1977, Griscom and Sprunt 1979, Harrison 1975.