Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: In the northern portion of its range, inhabits conifer forests that are open and interspersed with shrubs or forest edges. Farther south, seems to prefer shrubby stands of oaks, pinyon, juniper, and manzanita. Throughout its range, prefers and is perhaps limited to dry slopes.
NEST: In Washington, seems to nest exclusively in fir trees, placing nest on horizontal branches 7 to 50 feet above the ground. In habitats further south, builds nests in shrubs such as manzanita, oak, ceanothus, or large white oaks and sycamores.
FOOD: Forages among the leaves of shrubs for insects. (Detailed food habits have not been reported.)
REFERENCES: Bent 1953a, Griscom and Sprunt 1979, Phillips et al. 1964.