Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Generally inhabits coniferous forests throughout its range, but also found in aspen forests in the Rocky Mountains. In the West, prefers timbered sites with a low percent canopy cover, and forest edges such as those around meadows or lakes. In the East, prefers spruce-fir woodlands, but also frequents young coniferous growth near the edges of woods, mixed woods, and evergreen plantations.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Coniferous trees for nesting.
NEST: Builds nest well out on a horizontal branch in a conifer tree, screened from above by clumps of needles. Typically locates nest 15 to 20 feet above the ground, but sometimes 4 to 50 feet.
FOOD: Eats insects gleaned from foliage and caught by hawking. Also searches for food on the ground. In winter, largely subsists on berries.
REFERENCES: Beal and McAtee 1912, Bent 1953a, DeGraff et al. 1980, Griscom and Sprunt 1979, Johnsgard 1979, Kaufman in Farrand 1983c, Verner and Boss 1980.