Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Locally common.
HABITAT: Favors moist deciduous swamp and bottomland forests and shady, mature upland woods. Prefers rather open forests with tall trees and little undergrowth.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Tall deciduous trees.
NEST: Usually builds nest 15 to 90 feet above ground in tall trees, well away from the trunk, on horizontal branches that are free from vegetation below. In some parts of the range, favors elm for nesting, but will nest in oaks, maples, basswood, and yellow-poplar.
FOOD: Eats mostly insects gleaned from leaves or caught in the air.
REFERENCES: Armistead in Farrand 1983c, Bent 1953a, DeGraff et al. 1980, Griscom and Sprunt 1979, Johnsgard 1979.