Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Prefers northern hardwood forests with an ample undergrowth of saplings and evergreen or deciduous shrubs. Also inhabits mature coniferous-deciduous forests, especially those with an undergrowth of creeping yew, laurel, hazel, maple, or brushy saplings. In the southern Appalachians, often inhabits dense mountain-laurel thickets.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Woodlands with shrubby undergrowth.
NEST: Constructs well-concealed nest near the ground, generally not higher than 3 feet above ground, in fallen tree tops, small trees, or shrubs. Partial to nesting in rhododendron, laurel, hemlock, small spruce, fir, and maple.
FOOD: Forages in the shrub, subcanopy, and lower canopy layers of forests, gleaning insects from foliage and branches. Mostly consumes insects but occasionally eats seeds and berries.
REFERENCES: Bent 1953a, DeGraff et al. 1980, Griscom and Sprunt 1979, Harding 1931, Johnsgard 1979, Petersen in Farrand 1983c.