Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: May inhabit narrow, steep-walled canyons and rocky cliffs, but far more commonly found near human habitations.
NEST: Prefers to nest on or in structures that provide narrow ledges similar to cliff ledges. Constructs a flimsy nest on stone, brick, and concrete buildings in cities, high upon ledges, under windows, under bridges, on monuments, in barns or other man-made structures, preferably in semi-dark cavities. May nest singly or in colonies.
FOOD: Commonly feeds on parkland, sidewalks, and parking lots in cities; cultivated fields; feedlots; and wastelands. Gleans seeds of weeds, grasses, and grains, takes human handouts, and eats a few berries and tender roots of grasses.
REFERENCES: DeGraff et al. 1980, Forbush and May 1955, Johnsgard 1979, Terres 1980.