Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Generally gregarious; breeds and roosts in large concentrations on brushy, small, low islands and keys, among coastal mangroves and pines.
NEST: Nests colonially, but not with or near other colonial species. Builds nest from a few feet to 15 feet or more above ground, on top of cactus or bushes, or high in mangroves; occasionally low and over water.
FOOD: Forages in open forests, woodlands, and scrubs and eats seeds, berries, and a few insects.
REFERENCES: Cottam and Knappen 1939, Harrison 1975, Sykes in Farrand 1983b, Terres 1980, Wiley and Wiley 1979.