Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Commonly found near large trees in open woodlands, fields, meadows, and deserts throughout North America. In winter, occasionally seeks shelter in coniferous forests or in swamps.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Cavity nest sites.
NEST: Prefers to nest near the top of broken-off stubs of dead trees in open country or in sparsely wooded parklike suburban areas. Also nests in and around openings in extensive forested areas. Excavates nests in dead or live trees of many species, including aspen, cottonwood, oak, willow, sycamore, pine, and juniper.
FOOD: Searches for food, much of the time, on the ground. Consumes a diet that is about 60 percent animal food; of this, nearly 75 percent is ants. (Some flicker stomachs have contained over 2,000 ants.) The diet also includes other insects, weed seeds, cultivated grain, and the fruits of shrubs and trees.
REFERENCES: Bailey and Niedrach 1965, Beal 1911, Conner et al. 1975, DeGraff et al. 1980, Forbush and May 1955, Johnsgard 1979, Lawrence 1967, Thomas et al. 1979.