Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Locally abundant.
HABITAT: Favors coniferous forests (primarily spruce and fir), throughout most of its range, often extending into areas where trees are quite sparse and into mixed forests. In winter, forms large flocks and may move downslope to oak or pine-oak habitats, parks, and around towns.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Conifers.
NEST: Usually places nest on a horizontal limb of a conifer, 20 to 100 feet above the ground. Builds a shallow cup, usually in a dense cluster of leaves near the end of a branch.
FOOD: Eats seeds, fruits, and buds from a variety of trees and shrubs. In summer, the diet includes insects. Picks vegetable matter from the branches and the ground; gleans insects from branches or hawks them in the air.
REFERENCES: Forbush and May 1955, Verner and Boss 1980.