Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Prefers extensive areas of upland woods that provide a variety of trees, bushes, and vines. Also occurs in brushy pastures, hedgerows, open woodlands, orchards, thickets, and along wooded roadsides.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Low, dense, shrubby vegetation.
NEST: Selects nest sites that are well concealed by overhanging branches and leaf clusters. Usually nests in shrubs or on a low tree branch, typically 4 to 6 feet above ground. Occasionally lays eggs in the nests of other birds.
FOOD: Feeds primarily on caterpillars, especially tent caterpillars; also other insects, spiders, and a few tiny mollusks, fishes, and wild fruits and berries.
REFERENCES: Beal 1904, Bent 1940a, DeGraff et al. 1980, Herrick 1910, Johnsgard 1979, Spencer 1943.