Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Rare to locally common.
HABITAT: In summer, inhabits dense coniferous forests (especially spruce) and dense tall shrubbery, or recent clearcuts in low damp areas or near water. In parts of range, prefers aspen-poplar forests and willow or alder thickets, and occasionally breeds in coniferous-deciduous forests. In winter, frequents deciduous forests.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Damp forests or adjacent water.
NEST: Builds a bulky cup nest, usually near the trunk, on a horizontal branch of a conifer 2 to 20 feet above the ground.
FOOD: Gleans food from the forest floor, foliage, and branch surfaces. Also eats insects, spiders, millipedes, and small fruits and berries.
REFERENCES: Beal 1915b, DeGraff et al. 1980, Forbush and May 1955, Terres 1980, Verner and Boss 1980.