Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Common in portions of its range.
HABITAT: During summer, inhabits coniferous forests (primarily spruce) and tall shrubby areas in taiga. During migration and in winter, also found in deciduous forests and open woodlands. Generally inhabits mountain tops in the Northeast.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Coniferous forests.
NEST: Usually builds its nest in willows, alders, or spruces, from ground level to 20 feet, but usually about 6 feet above ground on divergent branches close to the trunk.
FOOD: Generally gleans food from the ground; eats insects, spiders, earthworms, crayfish, and berries.
REFERENCES: Beal 1915b, DeGraff et al. 1980, Terres 1980.