Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: In summer, inhabits coniferous, mixed, and deciduous forests with intermediate to high canopy coverage; responds negatively to intensive tree harvests. During migration and in winter, also inhabits chaparral, riparian woodlands, arid pine-oak associations, and desert scrub.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Relatively undisturbed, rather dense forests.
NEST: Usually builds nest in a depression on the ground, under rock ledges, or under low overhanging limbs. Sometimes locates nests in shrubs or small trees near the ground, especially in the West.
FOOD: Gleans most of its food from the ground. Eats insects, spiders, snails, and earthworms, plus considerable amounts of wild fruits in fall and winter.
REFERENCES: Beal 1915b, DeGraff et al. 1980, Forbush and May 1955, Szaro and Balda 1982, Terres 1980, Verner and Boss 1980.