Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Inhabits low, moist, deciduous woods, bottomland forests, wooded swamps, and damp ravines; prefers sapling stands of deciduous second-growth or open woods with fairly dense undergrowth of ferns, shrubs, and trees.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Moist woodlands with understory of low trees or shrubs.
NEST: Builds a bulky nest on or near the ground at the base of a shrub, on a mossy stump, in a clump of weeds, or occasionally in a low shrub or tree.
FOOD: Often forages on the forest floor, turning leaves with bill in search of food; occasionally searches for food in trees. Consumes a diet that is about 57 percent animal and 43 percent vegetable.
REFERENCES: Beal 1915b, DeGraff et al. 1980, Forbush and May 1955, Terres 1980.