Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Abundant. Expanding range in the East.
HABITAT: Inhabits rural, suburban, and urban yards, parks, farms, and open woodlands, as well as wooded areas with large openings, chaparral, and arid shrublands.
NEST: Builds nests in a variety of sites, including tree cavities, and in dense outer foliage of trees and shrubs. In the East, generally chooses conifers, locating nest about 20 feet above the ground. Usually constructs nest with a variety of local grass and other available vegetation.
FOOD: Forages on the ground for a variety of vegetative material, including seeds and fruits. Also forages in domestic fruit trees, sometimes doing considerable damage. Consumes widely varing kinds of foods, depending on local availability; includes some insects.
REFERENCES: DeGraff et al. 1980, Evenden 1957, Terres 1980.