Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Inhabits open fields with scattered small spruces or other trees, or small shrubs in the north circumpolar region. In winter, forms large flocks and moves erratically, occasionally to the edge of forests.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Open field sites with perch areas.
NEST: Generally places nest 3 to 7 feet above the ground, either in a dwarf tree or shrub or on the ground in open tundra. Conceals nest in vegetation, generally near lakes or ponds.
FOOD: Gleans seeds from birches, alders, pines, willows, and shrubs. Also forages on the ground for seeds of grasses, forbs, and trees, and for insects. Moves during winter to find sources of food.
REFERENCES: Forbush and May 1955, Grinnell 1943.