Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Typically in habitats such as chaparral-covered hillsides, canyons, and mountain slopes and oak or sycamore woodlands in canyon bottoms. Also inhabits open mixed woodlands and chaparral, parks, and gardens from sea level to 5,900 feet, preferring timbered sites with sparse canopy cover.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Flowers for nectar near the nest site, and forest openings.
NEST: Places nest on a variety of substrates, including trees such as citrus, eucalyptus, and oaks, as well as chaparral bushes and vines at heights ranging from less than 3 to 30 feet.
FOOD: Obtains nectar from many flowering plants. Also eats flies, bees, wasps, bugs, and spiders gleaned from flowers and foliage and hawked from the air.
REFERENCES: Beal and McAtee 1912, Grinnell and Miller 1944, Johnsgard 1983b, Stiles 1973, Verner and Boss 1980.