Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Locally common.
HABITAT: Inhabits coniferous forests, coastal islands, and inland lakes, usually within 12 miles from ocean.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Old growth coniferous forests.
NEST: Nests solitarily on bare rocks, below ledges, in rock cavities, on the ground, and in coniferous trees. Usually nests within 4 miles of the ocean but occasionally farther inland.
FOOD: Dives for food and consumes mostly small fish and various crustaceans but diet varies regionally.
REFERENCES: Terres 1980, Day et al. 1983, Carter and Sealy 1986.