Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Breeds in alpine and arctic habitats with rough features such as tussocks, tilted rocks, or eroded spots for nest sites. Requires nesting habitat that is free of snow early in the breeding season; prefers moss-grown slopes with southern exposures.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Alpine or arctic tundra with some rough features.
NEST: Builds nest on the ground in the shelter of a rock or bank, beside a mossy hummock, or at the base of a tussock.
FOOD: Forages while walking, gleaning food from the ground and low vegetation. Eats seeds of grasses and weeds, insects, spiders, mites, small mollusks, and crustaceans.
REFERENCES: Forbush and May 1955, Gibb 1956, Sutton and Parmalee 1954a, Terres 1980, Verbeek 1970.