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Weights of Wild Mallard Anas platyrynchos, Gadwall A. strepera, and Blue-winged Teal A. discors During the Breeding Season


Alliston, W.G. 1975. Web-tagging ducklings in pipped eggs. J. Wildl. Manage. 

Batt, B.D.J. & Prince, H.H. 1978. Some reproductive parameters of Mallards in
     relation to age, captivity, and geographic origin. J. Wildl. Manage. 

Blohm, R.J. 1977. A capture and age determination method for the Gadwall 
     (Anas strepera). M. S. Thesis, Univ. Wisconsin, Madison. 55 pp.

Cooch, G. 1953. Techniques for mass capture of flightless Blue and Lesser Snow 
     Geese. J. Wildl. Manage. 17:460-465.

Cowardin, L.M., Gilmer, D.S. & Shaiffer, C.W. 1985. Mallard recruitment in the 
     agricultural environment of North Dakota. Wildl. Monogr. 92. 37 pp.

Cummings, G.E. & Hewitt, O.H. 1964. Capturing waterfowl and marsh birds at 
     night with light and sound. J. Wildl. Manage. 28:120-126.

Dane, C.W. 1968. Age determination of Blue-winged Teal. J. Wildl. Manage. 

Dement'ev, G.P. & Gladkov, N.A. 1967. Birds of the Soviet Union. Transl. from 
     Russian by the Israel Prog. for Sci. Transl.

Dill, H.H. & Thornsberry, W.H. 1950. A cannon-projected net trap for capturing 
     waterfowl. J. Wildl. Manage. 14:132-137.

Dwyer, T.J. 1975. Time budget of breeding Gadwalls. Wilson Bull. 87:335-343.

Dzubin, A. 1959. Growth and plumage development of wild-trapped juvenile 
     Canvasback (Aythya valisineria). J. Wildl. Manage. 23:279-290.

Eldridge, J.L. & Krapu, G.L. 1988. The influence of diet quality on clutch size 
     and laying pattern in Mallards. Auk 105:102-110.

Gatti, R.C. 1983. Incubation weight loss in the Mallard. Can. J. Zool. 

Gollop, J.B. & Marshall, W.H. 1954. A guide for ageing duck broods in the 
     field. Miss. Flyway Council Tech. Sect. Minneapolis. 14 pp. (Mimeogr.).

Haramis, G.M., Nichols, J.D., Pollock, K.H. & Hines, J.E. 1986. The 
     relationship between body mass and survival of wintering Canvasbacks. 
     Auk 103:506-514.

Johnsgard, P.A. 1975. Waterfowl of North America. Indiana University Press, 
     Bloomington. 575 pp.

Kear, J. 1965. The internal food reserves of hatching Mallard ducklings.
     J. Wildl. Manage. 29:523-528.

Kear, J. 1970. The adaptive radiation of parental care in waterfowl. Pp. 357-
     392 in: J.H. Crook (Ed.) Social behaviour in birds and mammals. Academic 
     Press, London. 492 pp.

Koskimies, J. & Lahti, L. 1964. Cold-hardiness of the newly hatched young in 
     relation to ecology and distribution in ten species of European ducks. Auk 

Krapu, G.L. 1981. The role of nutrient reserves in Mallard reproduction. 
     Auk 98:29-38.

Krapu, G.L. & Doty, H.A. 1979. Age-related aspects of Mallard reproduction. 
     Wildfowl 30:35-39.

Krapu, G.L., Johnson, D.H. & Dane, C.W. 1979. Age determination of Mallards.
     J. Wildl. Manage. 43:384-393.

Lack, D.L. 1968. Ecological adaptations for breeding in birds. Methuen, London. 
     409 pp.

Lokemoen, J.T., Duebbert, H.F. & Sharp, D.E. 1990. Homing and reproductive 
     habits of Mallards, Gadwalls, and Blue-winged Teal. Wildl. Monogr. 

McKinney, F. 1965. Spacing and chasing in breeding ducks. Wildfowl 16:92-106.

Oring, L.W. 1968. Growth, molts, and plumages of the Gadwall. Auk 85:355-380.

Oring, L.W. 1969. Summer biology of the Gadwall at Delta, Manitoba. 
     Wilson Bull. 81:44-54.

Owen, R.B. Jr. 1969. Heart rate, a measure of metabolism in Blue-winged Teal. 
     Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 31:431-436.

Pehrsson, O. 1982. An experimental study of egg and duckling size, and 
     subsequent survival and growth rate as a result of food quality of laying 
     Mallards. Trans. Int. Congr. Game Biol. 14:195-202.

Pollock, K.H., Winterstein, S.R. & Conroy, M.J. 1989. Estimation and analysis 
     of survival distributions for radio-tagged animals. Biometrics 45:99-109.

Prince, H.H., Siegel, P.B. & Cornwell, G.W. 1970. Inheritance of egg production 
     and juvenile growth in Mallards. Auk 87:342-352.

Richards, F.J. 1959. A flexible growth function for empirical use. J. Exp. Bot. 

Ricklefs, R.E. 1973. Patterns of growth in birds. II. Growth rate and mode of 
     development. Ibis 115:177-201.

Salyer, J.W. 1962. A bow-net trap for ducks. J. Wildl. Manage. 26:219-221.

Sargeant, A.B. & Raveling, D.G. (in press). Mortality during the breeding 
     season. Pp. ???-??? in: B.D.J. Batt (Ed.) Ecology and Management of 
     Breeding Waterfowl. Univ. of Minnesota Press.

SAS Institute, Inc. 1987. SAS/STAT Guide for Personal Computers, Version 6 
     Edition. Cary, N.C. 1028 pp.

Sharp, D.E. & Lokemoen, J.T. 1987. A decoy trap for breeding-season Mallards in 
     North Dakota. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:711-715.

Siegfried, W.R. 1974. Brood care, pairbonds and plumage in southern African 
     Anatini. Wildfowl 25:33-40.

Southwick, C. 1953. A system of age classification for field studies of 
     waterfowl broods. J. Wildl. Manage. 17:1-8.

Stewart, G.R. & Titman, R.D. 1980. Territorial behaviour by prairie pothole 
     Blue-winged Teal. Can. J. Zool. 58:639-649.

Street, M. 1977. The food of Mallard ducklings in a wet gravel quarry, and its 
     relation to duckling survival. Wildfowl 28:113-125.

Sugden, L.G., Driver, E.A. & Kingsley, M.C.S. 1981. Growth and energy 
     consumption by captive Mallards. Can. J. Zool 59:1567-1570.

Swanson, G.A., Shaffer, T.L., Wolf, J.F. & Lee, F.B. 1986. Renesting 
     characteristics of captive Mallards on experimental ponds. J. Wildl. 
     Manage. 50:32-38.

Titman, R.D. 1981. A time-activity budget for breeding Mallards (Anas 
     platyrhynchos) in Manitoba. Can. Field-Nat. 95:266-271.

Veselovsky, Z. 1953. Postembryonal development of our wild ducks. Sylvia 14:36-
     73. Transl. from Czechoslovakian by the Indian Affairs and Northern Dev. 
     Library, Ottawa.

Weller, M.W. 1959. Growth, weights, and plumages of the Redhead, Aythya 
     americana. Wilson Bull. 69:5-38.

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