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Species, Age and Sex Identification of Ducks Using Wing Plumage

Separation of Oldsquaw, Black Scoter, and Surf Scoter


Two Most Distal Primaries:

(a) 10th primary shorter than 9th primary and either black and attenuated, or gray-black and tapering but much narrower than 9th primary -- Black scoter
(b) 9th primary is the longest, outerweb of this feather narrows near tip -- Oldsquaw
(c) 10th primary longest, all primaries are uniformly tapering -- Surf scoter

GIF-Variation in the outer two primaries among three species


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