Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Greenwood, R. J., A. B. Sargeant, D. H. Johnson, M. A. Sovada, and T. L. Shaffer. 1995. Factors associated with duck nest success in the prairie pothole region of Canada. Wildl. Monogr. 128. 57 pp. http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/othrdata/nestsucc/nestsucc.htm.
Estimates of nest success (%) from pooled annual averages (unweighted) for mallards, gadwalls, blue-winged teals, northern shovelers, and northern pintails on study areas in the Prairie Pothole Region of Canada.