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Assessing Breeding Populations of Ducks by Ground Counts


A number of state, federal, and provincial biologists have aided in gathering field data or suggesting new approaches. I am much indebted to all of them. Help with counts on the Roseneath Study Area was received from Barry Iliffe, Murray Evans, Stanley Kost, Helen Hays, B.M. Cram, Gerald Pospichal, Glen Parsons, Wesley Newcomb, W.H. Kiel, C.D. Evans, A.S. Hawkins, Peter Ward, and H.A. Hochbaum. On the Kindersley Study Area, Ernie Kuyt, W.J.D. Stephen, R.A. Lamont, J.B. Gollop, and various Saskatchewan Department of Natural Resources' biologists helped with censuses. My wife, Delores, provided assistance on both study areas. I am grateful to the many friendly landowners who allowed me access and turned a blind eye to periodic trampling of cropland by census crews. I also owe a special debt of gratitude to the A. Macdonald family of Minnedosa, Manitoba.

I have benefited from consultations and discussion of waterfowl census techniques with J.J. Lynch, A.G. Smith, J.H. Stoudt, H.M. Murdy, M.C. Hammond, D.F. McKinney, R.T. Sterling, J.B. Millar, A.S. Goodman, L.M. Kirsch, and J.B. Gollop. Early in the study E.G. Wellein and R.W. Balham gave me much valuable advice. J.J. Lynch, H.M. Murdy, J.H. Stoudt, and A.G. Smith granted permission to use unpublished material. To all these individuals my sincere thanks.

Financial aid was received from the Wildlife Management Institute through the Delta Waterfowl Research Station and from the Department of Wildlife Management, University of Wisconsin, for the Manitoba project. All Saskatchewan work was done under auspices of the Canadian Wildlife Service. A grant covering various meteorological instruments was received from the National Research Council of Canada in 1953, 1954, and 1955. In 1953, a financial grant was also received from the National Research Council to attend the University of Wisconsin.

In 1952 and 1953 the Manitoba study was conducted under direction of Dr. I.McT. Cowan of the University of British Columbia and for all subsequent years under supervision of Dr. R.A. McCabe of the University of Wisconsin. Dr. H.A. Hochbaum directed part of the field program in Manitoba as did Dr. J.B. Gollop in Saskatchewan.

I sincerely acknowledge the comments and suggestions received from J.B. Gollop, M.C. Hammond, and L.M. Kirsch on early drafts of this paper. I am also indebted to Drs. J.J. Hickey, R.A. McCabe, and L.B. Keith for helpful criticisms and editorial assistance.

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