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Declining Scaup Populations:
Issues, Hypotheses, and Research Needs

Literature Cited


AFTON, A. D.  1983.  Male and female strategies for reproduction in lesser 
	scaup.  Dissertation, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, USA.
	
AFTON, A. D.  1984.  Influence of age and time on reproductive performance of 
	female lesser scaup.  Auk 101:255-265.
	
AFTON, A. D., and C. D. ANKNEY.  1991.  Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding 
	lesser scaup: a test of competing hypotheses.  Condor 93:89-97.
	
AFTON, A. D., and R. H. HIER. 1991.  Diets of lesser scaup breeding in Manitoba.  
	Journal of Field Ornithology 62:325-334.
	
ANDERSON, M. G., J. M. RHYMER, and F. C. ROHWER. 1992. Philopatry, dispersal, 
	and the genetic structure of waterfowl populations. Pages 365-395 in 
	B. D. J. Batt, A. D. Afton, M. G. Anderson, C. D. Ankney, D. H. Johnson, 
	J. A. Kadlec, and G. L. Krapu, editors. Ecology and management of 
	breeding waterfowl. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
	
AUSTIN, J. E., C. M. CUSTER, and A. D. AFTON.  1998.  Lesser scaup (Aythya 
	affinis).  In A. A. Poole and F. Gill, editors.  The Birds of North 
	America, Number 338.  The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, 
	D.C., USA.
	  
AUSTIN, J. E., A. D. AFTON, M. G. ANDERSON, R. G. CLARK, C. M. CUSTER, J. S. 
	LAWRENCE, J. B. POLLARD, and J. K. RINGELMAN. 1999.  Declines of greater 
	and lesser scaup populations:  issues,  hypotheses, and research 
	directions.  Summary Report for the Scaup Workshop.  United States 
	Geological Survey, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown,  
	North Dakota, USA.
	 
BELLROSE, F. C.  1980.  Ducks, geese, and swans of North America.  Third 
	edition.  Stackpole, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA.
	  
CHAMBERLAIN, C. P., J. D. BLUM, R. T. HOLMES, X. FENG, T. W. SHERRY, and G. R. 
	GRAVES.  1997.  The use of isotope tracers for identifying populations 
	of migratory birds.  Oecologia 109:132-141.
	
HOTHEM, R. L., D. G. LONZARICH, J. E. TAKEKAWA, and H. M. OHLENDORF.  1998.  
	Contaminants in wintering canvasbacks and scaups from San Francisco Bay, 
	California.  Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 50:67-84.
 
JOHNSON, D. H., J. D. NICHOLS, and M. D. SCHWARTZ. 1988.  Population dynamics 
	of breeding waterfowl.  Pages 446-485 in B. D. J. Batt, A. D. Afton, M. 
	G. Anderson, C. D. Ankney, D. H. Johnson, J. A. Kadlec, and G. L. Krapu, 
	editors.  Ecology and management of breeding waterfowl.  University of 
	Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
	
OHLENDORF, H. M., R. W. LOWE, P. R. KELLY, and T. E. HARVEY.  1996.  Selenium 
	and heavy metals in San Francisco Bay diving ducks.  Journal of 
	Wildlife Management 50:64-71.
	
PACE, R. M., III, and A. D. AFTON.  1999.  Direct recovery rates of lesser 
	scaup banded in northwest Minnesota: sources of heterogeneity.  
	Journal of Wildlife Management 63:389-395.
	
ROCQUE, D. A.  1997.   Population ecology and modeling of greater scaup.  
	Thesis, University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA.
	
TRAUGER, D. L.  1971.  Population ecology of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) in 
	subarctic taiga.  Dissertation, Iowa State University, Ames, USA.
	
UNITED STATES FISH and WILDLIFE SERVICE and CANADIAN WILDLIFE SERVICE. 1986.  
	North American Waterfowl Management Plan: a strategy for cooperation. 
	United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., USA.
	
UNITED STATES FISH and WILDLIFE SERVICE. 1998.  Waterfowl population status, 
	1998.  United States Department of Interior, United States Fish and 
	Wildlife Service.  Washington, D.C., USA.

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