USGS - science for a changing world

Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

  Home About NPWRC Our Science Staff Employment Contacts Common Questions About the Site

Importance of Individual Species of Predators on Nesting Success of Ducks in the Canadian Prairie Pothole Region

Literature Cited


BALSER, D. S., DILL, H. H., and NELSON, H. K. 1968. Effect of predator reduction 
       on waterfowl nesting success. J. Wildl. Manage. 32:669-682.
       
BEINTEMA, A. J., and MUSKENS, G. J. D. M. 1987. Nesting success of birds breeding 
       in Dutch agricultural grasslands. J. Appl. Ecol. 24:743-758.
       
BELLROSE, F. C. 1980. Ducks, geese and swans of North America. Stackpole Books, 
       Harrisburg, PA.
       
BOYD, H. 1981. A fair future for prairie ducks; cloudy further north. Trans. N. 
       Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 46:85-93.
       
CHOROMANSKI-NORRIS, J. F. 1983. The ecology of the Franklin's ground squirrel in 
       North Dakota. M.S. thesis, University of Missouri, Columbia.
       
COWARDIN, L. M., GILMER, D. S., and SHAIFFER, C. W. 1985. Mallard recruitment 
       in the agricultural environment of North Dakota. Wildl. Monogr. No. 92.
       
DEKKER, D. 1983. Denning and foraging habits of red foxes, Vulpes vulpes, and 
       their interactions with coyotes, Canis latrans, in central Alberta, 
       1972-1981. Can. Field-Nat. 97:303-306.
       
DUEBBERT, H. F. 1982. Nesting of waterfowl on islands in Lake Audubon, North 
       Dakota. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 10:232-237.
       
DUEBBERT, H. F., and KANTRUD, H. A. 1974. Upland duck nesting related to land
       use and predator reduction. J. Wildl. Manage. 38:257-265.
       
DUEBBERT, H. F., and LOKEMOEN, J. T. 1976. Duck nesting in fields of undisturbed
       grass-legume cover. J. Wildl. Manage. 40:30-49.
       
DUEBBERT, H. F., LOKEMOEN, J. T., and SHARP, D. E. 1983. Concentrated nesting of 
       mallards and gadwalls on Miller Lake Island. J. Wildl. Manage. 47:729-740.
       
ELLIG, L. J. 1955. Waterfowl relationships to Greenfields Lake, Teton County, 
       Montana. Mont. Fish Game Comm. Tech. Bull. No. 1.
       
GOLLOP, J. B. 1965. Wetland inventories in western Canada. Proc. Int. Congr. 
       Game Biol. 6:249-264.
       
GREENWOOD, R. J. 1986. Influence of striped skunk removal on upland duck nest 
       success in North Dakota. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 14:6-11.
       
GREENWOOD, R. J., SARGEANT, A. B., JOHNSON, D. H., COWARDIN, L. M., and SHAFFER, 
      T. L. 1987. Duck nesting success in the Canadian prairie-parkland, with 
      emphasis on mallard recruitment. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 
      52:298-309.
      
HAMMOND, M. C. 1940. Crow-waterfowl relationships on federal refuges. Trans. 
       N. Am. Wildl. Conf. 5:398-404.
       
HIGGINS, K. F. 1977. Duck nesting in intensively farmed areas of North Dakota. 
       J. Wildl. Manage. 44:232-242.
       
HIGGINS, K. F., KIRSCH, L. M., DUEBBERT, H. F., KLETT, A. T., LOKEMOEN, J. T., 
       MILLER, H. W., and KRUSE, A. D. 1977. Construction and operation of 
       cable-chain drag for nest searches. U. S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Wildl. Leafl. 
       No. 512.
       
HILDEN, O. 1964. Ecology of duck populations in the island group of Valassaaret, 
       Gulf of Bothnia. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 1:153-279.
       
JOHNSON, D. H. 1979. Estimating nest success: the Mayfield method and an 
       alternative. Auk, 96:651-661.
       
JONES, R. E., and HUNGERFORD, K. E. 1972. Evaluation of nesting cover as 
       protection from magpie predation. J. Wildl. Manage. 36:727-732.
       
KALMBACH, E. R. 1937. Crow-waterfowl relationships in the prairie provinces. 
       Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Conf. 2:380-392.
       
______.	1938. A comparative study of nesting waterfowl on the Lower Souris 
       Refuge: 1936-1937. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Conf. 3:610-623.
       
KEITH, L. B. 1961. A study of waterfowl ecology on small impoundments in 
       southeastern Alberta. Wildl. Monogr. No. 6.
       
KLETT, A. T., DUEBBERT, H. F., FAANES, C. A., and HIGGINS, K. F. 1986. 
       Techniques for studying nest success of ducks in upland habitats in the 
       prairie region. U. S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Resour. Publ. No. 158.
       
KLETT, A. T., SHAFFER, T. L., and JOHNSON, D. H. 1988. Duck nest success in the 
       prairie pothole region. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:431-440.
       
LARSON, S. 1960. On the influence of the Arctic fox Alopex lagopus on the 
       distribution of Arctic birds. Oikos, 11:276-305.
       
LOKEMOEN, J. T., DOTY, H. A., SHARP, D. E., and NEAVILLE, J. E. 1982. Electric 
       fences to reduce mammalian predation on waterfowl nests. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 
       10:318-323.
       
MAJOR, J. T., and SHERBURNE, J. A. 1987. Interspecific relationships of coyotes, 
       bobcats, and red foxes in western Maine. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:606-616.
       
MARTZ, G. F. 1967. Effects of nesting cover removal on breeding puddle ducks. J. 
       Wildl. Manage. 31:236-247.
       
MAYFIELD, H. 1961. Nesting success calculated from exposure. Wilson Bull. 73:
       255-261.
       
MCINVAILLE, W. B., JR., and KEITH, L. B. 1974. Predator-prey relations and 
       breeding biology of the great horned owl and red-tailed hawk in central 
       Alberta. Can. Field-Nat. 88:1-20.
       
PEHRSSON, O. 1985. Duckling production of the Oldsquaw in relation to spring 
       weather and small-rodent fluctuations. Can. J. Zool. 64:1835-1841.
       
SARGEANT, A. B. 1972. Red fox spatial characteristics in relation to waterfowl 
       predation. J. Wildl. Manage. 36:225-236.
       
SARGEANT, A. B., and ARNOLD, P. M. 1984. Predator management for ducks on 
       waterfowl production areas in the northern plains. Proc. Vertebr. Pest 
       Conf. 11:161-167.
       
SARGEANT, A. B., GREENWOOD, R. J., PIEHL, J. L., and BICKNELL, W. B. 1982. 
       Recurrence, mortality, and dispersal of prairie striped skunks, Mephitis 
       mephitis, and implications of rabies epizootiology. Can. Field-Nat. 96:
       312-316.
       
SARGEANT, A. B., ALLEN, S. H., and EBERHARDT, R. T. 1984. Red fox predation on 
      breeding ducks in midcontinent North America. Wildl. Monogr. No. 89.
      
SARGEANT, A. B., ALLEN, S. H., and HASTINGS, J. O. 1987a. Spatial relations 
       between sympatric coyotes and red foxes in North Dakota. J. Wildl. 
       Manage. 51:285-293.
       
SARGEANT, A. B., SOVADA, M. A., and GREENWOOD, R. J. 1987b. Responses of 
       three prairie ground squirrel species, Spermophilus franklinii, S. 
       richardsonii, and S. tridecemlineatus, to duck eggs. Can. Field-Nat. 
       101:95-97.
       
SAS INSTITUTE INC. 1985. SAS/STAT guide for personal computers, Version 6 
       edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
       
SHAW, S. P., and FREDINE, C. G. 1956. Wetlands of the United States. U. S. 
       Fish Wildl. Serv. Circ. No. 39.
       
SMITH, A. G. 1971. Ecological factors affecting waterfowl production in the 
       Alberta parklands. U. S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Resour. Publ. No. 98.
       
SMITH, A. G., STOUDT, J. H., and GOLLOP, J. B. 1964. Prairie potholes and 
       marshes. In Waterfowl tomorrow. Edited by J. P. Linduska. United States 
       Fish and Wildlife Service, United States Government Printing Office, 
       Washington, DC. pp. 39-50.
       
SOWLS, L. K. 1948. The Franklin ground squirrel, Citellus franklinii (Sabine), 
       and its relationship to nesting ducks. J. Mammal. 29:113-137.
       
STOUDT, J. H. 1971. Ecological factors affecting waterfowl production in the 
       Saskatchewan parklands. U. S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Resour. Publ. No. 99.
       
SUGDEN, L. G., and BEYERSBERGEN, G. W. 1987. Effects of nesting cover density 
       on American crow predation on simulated duck nests. J. Wildl. Manage. 
       51:481-485.
       
SUMMERS, R. W. 1986. Breeding production of dark-bellied brent geese Branta 
      bernicla bernicla in relation to lemming cycles. Bird Study, 33:105-108.
      
VOIGT, D. R., and EARLS, B. D. 1983. Avoidance of coyotes by red fox families. 
       J. Wildl. Manage. 47:852-857.
       
WELLER, M. W. 1956. A simple field candler for waterfowl eggs. J. Wildl. 
       Manage. 20:111-113.

Previous Section -- Acknowledgements
Return to Contents

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/birds/dnspred/litcite.htm
Page Contact Information: Webmaster
Page Last Modified: Friday, 01-Feb-2013 19:12:33 EST
Sioux Falls, SD [sdww54]