USGS - science for a changing world

Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

  Home About NPWRC Our Science Staff Employment Contacts Common Questions About the Site

Description and Identification of American
Black Duck, Mallard, and Hybrid Wing Plumage

Literature Cited


American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. 7th 
      ed. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C., USA. 829 pp.

Anderson, D. R., J. D. Nichols, and M. J. Conroy. 1987. The need for 
      experiments to understand population dynamics of American Black Ducks. 
      Wildlife Society Bulletin 15:282-284.

Ankney, C. D., and D. G. Dennis. 1988. Response to Hepp et al. Auk 105:807-808.

Ankney, C. D., D. G. Dennis, and R. C. Bailey. 1987. Increasing Mallards, 
      decreasing American Black Ducks: coincidence or cause and effect? Journal 
      of Wildlife Management 51:523-529.

Ankney, C. D., D. G. Dennis, and R. C. Bailey. 1988. Increasing Mallards, 
      decreasing American Black Ducks: coincidence or cause and effect? 
      Corrigendum. Journal of Wildlife Management 52:378.

Ankney, C. D., D. G. Dennis, and R. C. Bailey. 1989. Increasing Mallards, 
      decreasing American Black Ducks-no evidence for cause and effect: a reply. 
      Journal of Wildlife Management 53:1072-1075.

Ankney, C. D., D. G. Dennis, L. N. Wishard, and J. E. Seeb. 1986. Low genic 
      variation between American Black Ducks and Mallards. Auk 103:701-709.

Audubon, J. J. 1838. Ornithological Biography. Vol. 4. Adam and Charles Black, 
      Edinburgh, Scotland. 618 pp.

Avise, J. C., C. D. Ankney, and W. S. Nelson. 1990. Mitochondrial gene trees and 
      the evolutionary relationship of Mallard and Black Ducks. Evolution 44:
      1109-1119.

Bagg, A. C., and S. A. Eliot, Jr. 1937. Birds of the Connecticut Valley in 
      Massachusetts. Thomas Todd Company, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 813 pp.

Ball, S. C. 1934. Hybrid ducks including descriptions of two crosses of 
      Bucephala and Lophodytes. Peabody Museum of Natural History
      Bulletin 3. 26 pp. 

Barnes, G. G. 1989. Determination of Mallard and Black Duck hybrids from wing 
      feathers. Journal of Wildlife Management 53:1061-1064.

Barske, P., editor. 1968. The Black Duck, evaluation, management, and research: 
      a symposium. Atlantic Waterfowl Council and Wildlife Management Institute, 
      Washington, D.C., USA. 193 pp.

Batty, J. 1985. Domesticated ducks and geese. 2nd ed. Fanciers Suppliers 
      Limited, Liss, Hants, England, UK. 232 pp.

Bellrose, F. C. 1976. Ducks, geese and swans of North America. 2nd ed. Stackpole
      Books, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA. 549 pp.

Bigelow, H. B. 1907. On hybrids between the Mallard (Anas boschas) and 
      certain other ducks. Auk 24:382-388.

Boyd, H., F. G. Cooch, and J. G. Harrison. 1974. Uses of wing surveys in 
      monitoring and studying changes in duck populations and the impact of 
      hunting. Pages 423-426 in M. Smart, editor. Proceedings of the 
      International Conference on Conservation of Wetlands and Waterfowl. 
      Heiligenhafen, F.D.R., 2-6 December, 1974. International Waterfowl 
      Research Bureau, Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, England, UK.

Boyd, H., and G. H. Finney, editors. 1978. Migratory game bird hunters and 
      hunting in Canada. Canadian Wildlife Service Report Series 43. 125 pp.

Byers, S. M., and J. R. Carey. 1991. Discrimination of Mallard strains on the 
      basis of morphology. Journal of Wildlife Management 55:580-586.

Canadian Wildlife Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1986. North 
      American Waterfowl Management Plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
      Washington, D.C., USA. 31 pp. + A1-2.

Carney, S. M. 1964. Preliminary keys to waterfowl age and sex identification 
      by means of wing plumage. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Sport 
      Fisheries and Wildlife, Special Scientific Report-Wildlife 82. 47 pp.

Carney, S. M. 1992. Species, age and sex identification of ducks using wing 
      plumage. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
      Washington, D.C., USA. 144 pp.

Carney, S. M., and A. D. Geis. 1960. Mallard age and sex determination from 
      wings. Journal of Wildlife Management 24:372-281.

Carney, S. M., M. F. Sorenson, and E. M. Martin. 1975. Distribution in states 
      and counties of waterfowl species harvested during 1961-70 hunting 
      seasons. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Special Scientific Report-
      Wildlife 187. 132 pp.

Carney, S. M., M. F. Sorenson, and E. M. Martin. 1983. Distribution of 
      waterfowl species harvested in states and counties during 1971-80 hunting 
      seasons. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Special Scientific Report-
      Wildlife 254. 114 pp.

Collins, J. M. 1974. The relative abundance of ducks breeding in southern 
      Ontario in 1951 and 1971. Pages 32-44 in H. Boyd, editor. Canadian 
      Wildlife Service waterfowl studies in eastern Canada 1969-73. Canadian 
      Wildlife Service Report Series 29.

Conroy, M. J., G. G. Barnes, R. W. Bethke, and T. D. Nudds. 1989. Increasing 
      Mallards, decreasing American Black Ducks-no evidence for cause and 
      effect: a comment. Journal of Wildlife Management 53:1065-1071.

Conroy, M. J., and D. G. Krementz. 1990. A review of the evidence for the 
      effects of hunting on American Black Duck populations. Transactions of 
      the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 55:501-517.

Cramp, S., and K. E. L. Simmons. 1977. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the 
      Middle East and North Africa: the birds of the western Palearctic. Vol. 1.
      Ostriches to Ducks. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, UK. 722 pp.

Delacour, J. 1964. The waterfowl of the world. Vol. 4. Country Life, Ltd. 
      London, England, UK. 388 pp.

D'Eon, R. G., N. R. Seymour, and A. H. Boer. 1994. Black Duck-Mallard behavioral 
      interactions in relation to hybridization. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:
      1517-1521.

D'Eon, R. G., N. R. Seymour, G. E. Newsome, and A. H. Boer. 1995. Mallard, Anas 
      platyrhynchos, increase in the Maritimes: implications to Black Ducks, A. 
      rubripes. Canadian Field-Naturalist 109:459-462.

Dennis, D. G., K. L. Fisher, and G. B. McCullough. 1984. The change in status of 
      Mallards and American Black Ducks in southwestern Ontario. Pages 27-30 in 
      S. G. Curtis, D. G. Dennis, and H. Boyd, editors. Waterfowl studies in 
      Ontario 1973-81. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper 54.

Dennis, D. G., G. B. McCullough, N. R. North, and B. P. Collins. 1989. Survey of 
      breeding waterfowl in southern Ontario, 1971-1987. Canadian Wildlife 
      Service Progress Note 180. 4 pp.

Dennis, D. G., and N. R. North. 1984a. Waterfowl densities in northwestern 
      Ontario during the 1979 breeding season. Pages 6-19 in S. G. Curtis, D. 
      G. Dennis, and H. Boyd, editors. Waterfowl studies in Ontario 1973-81. 
      Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper 54. 

Dennis, D. G., and N. R. North. 1984b. Waterfowl production of moraine areas in 
      the vicinity of London, Ontario. Pages 14-20 in S. G. Curtis, D. G. 
      Dennis, and H. Boyd, editors. Waterfowl studies in Ontario 1973-81. 
      Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper 54.

Dutcher, W. 1889. Bird notes from Long Island, New York. Auk 6:131-139.

Eaton, E. H. 1903. A hybrid duck. Auk 20:64.

Forbush, E. H. 1925. Birds of Massachusetts and other New England states. Part 
      1. Water birds, marsh birds and shore birds. Massachusetts Department of 
      Agriculture. Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 481 pp.

Gillham, E., and B. Gillham. 1996. Hybrid Ducks: a contribution toward an 
      inventory. B.L. Gillham, Wallington, Surrey, England, UK. 88 pp.

Hanson, A. R., and C. D. Ankney. 1994. Morphometric similarity of Mallards and 
      American Black Ducks. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 72:2248-2251.

Heilner, V. C. 1946. Our American game birds. Doubleday and Company, 
     Incorporated, Garden City, New York, USA. 178 pp.

Hepp, G. R., J. M. Novak, K. T. Scribner, and P. W. Stangel. 1988. Genetic 
      distance and hybridization of Black Ducks and Mallards: a morph of a 
      different color? Auk 105:804-807.

Heusmann, H W 1974. Mallard-Black relationships in the Northeast. Wildlife 
      Society Bulletin 2:171-177.

Heusmann, H W 1988. Influence of wintering Mallards on hybridization in American
      Black Ducks. Journal of Field Ornithology 59:258-261.

Hines, B. 1978. Ducks at a distance: a waterfowl identification guide. 
      Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, 
      D.C., USA. 53 pp.

Jaap, R. G. 1934. Alleles of the Mallard plumage pattern in ducks. Genetics 19:
      310-322.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1961. Wintering distribution changes in Mallards and American 
      Black Ducks. American Midland Naturalist 66:477-484.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1967. Sympatry changes and hybridization incidence in Mallards 
      and American Black Ducks. American Midland Naturalist 77:51-63.

Johnsgard, P. A., and R. DiSilvestro. 1976. Seventy-five years of changes in 
      Mallard-Black Duck ratios in eastern North America. American Birds 30:
      904-908.

Kear, J. 1990. Man and wildfowl. T. and A.D. Poyser Limited, London, England, 
      UK. 288 pp.

Kessler, L. G., and J. C. Avise. 1984. Systematic relationships among waterfowl 
      (Anatidae) inferred from restriction endonuclease analysis of 
      mitochondrial DNA. Systematic Zoology 33:370-380. 

Kirby, R. E. 1988. American Black Duck breeding habitat enhancement in the 
      northeastern United States: a review and synthesis. U.S. Fish and 
      Wildlife Service, Biological Report 88(4). 50 pp. 

Kirby, R. E., and L. H. Fredrickson. 1990. Molts and plumages of the wood duck. 
      Pages 29-33 in L. H. Fredrickson, G. V. Burger, S. P. Havera, D. A. 
      Graber, R. E. Kirby, and T. S. Taylor, editors. Proceedings of the 1988 
      North American wood duck symposium. St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Kortright, F. H. 1942. Ducks, geese and swans of North America. Stackpole 
      Company, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and the Wildlife Management Institute, 
      Washington, D.C., USA. 476 pp.

Lancaster, F. M. 1963. The inheritance of plumage color in the common duck. 
      Bibliographia Genetica 19:317-404.

Latham, J. 1785. A general synopsis of birds. Vol. 3, Part 2. Leigh and Sotheby, 
      London, England, UK. 329-628 + unnumbered pp.

Livezey, B. C. 1991. A phylogenetic analysis and classification of recent 
      dabbling ducks (tribe Anatini) based on comparative morphology. Auk 108:
      471-507.

Longcore, J. R., P. O. Corr, and D. G. McAuley. 1987. Black Duck-Mallard 
      interactions on breeding areas in Maine. Transactions of the Northeast 
      Section of the Wildlife Society 44:16-31.

Martin, E. M., and S. M. Carney. 1977. Population ecology of the Mallard IV. 
      A review of duck hunting regulations, activity, and success, with special 
      reference to the Mallard. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Resource 
      Publication 130. 137 pp.

Merrell, D. J. 1981. Ecological genetics. University of Minnesota Press, 
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. 500 pp.

Morgan, R. P., II, L. A. Noe, and C. J. Henny. 1976. Biochemical identification
      of the Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, and American Black Duck, A. 
      rubripes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 53B:499-503. 

Morgan, R. P., II, D. W. Meritt, S. B. Block, M. A. Cole, S. T. Sulkin, and F. 
      B. Lee. 1978. Biochemical identification of Mallard-American Black Duck 
      hybrids through breeding program and in nature. Transactions of the 
      Northeast Section of the Wildlife Society 35:225-236.

Morgan, R. P., II, D. W. Meritt, S. B. Block, M. A. Cole, S. T. Sulkin, F. B. 
      Lee, and C. J. Henny. 1984a. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum 
      proteins of Mallard-American Black Duck hybrids. Biochemical Systematics 
      and Ecology 12:119-123.

Morgan, R. P., II, D. W. Meritt, S. B. Block, and S. T. Sulkin. 1984b. Frequency 
      of Mallard-American Black Duck hybrids along the Atlantic coast determined 
      by electrophoresis and plumage analysis. Biochemical Systematics and 
      Ecology 12:125-128.

Nichols, J. D. 1991. Science, population ecology, and the management of the 
      American Black Duck. Journal of Wildlife Management 55:790-799.

Nudds, T. D., M. W. Miller, and C. D. Ankney. 1996. Black Ducks: harvest, 
      Mallards, or habitat? Proceedings of the International Waterfowl 
      Symposium 7:50-60.

Nuttall, T. 1834. A manual of the ornithology of the United States and of 
      Canada. The water birds. Hilliard, Gray and Company, Boston, 
      Massachusetts, USA. 627 pp.

Oates, D. W., J. E. Seeb, L. N. Wishard, and P. Abersold. 1984. Biochemical 
      identification of North American waterfowl. Nebraska Game and Parks 
      Commission, Nebraska Technical Series 13. 68 pp.

Oberholser, H. C. 1974. The bird life of Texas. Vol. 1. University of Texas 
      Press, Austin, Texas, USA. 530 pp.

Ogilvie, M. A. 1975. Ducks of Britain and Europe. T. and A. D. Poyser, 
      Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, England, UK. 206 pp.

Palmer, R. S., editor. 1976. Handbook of North American birds. Vol. 2. 
      Waterfowl (part 2). Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.  
      521 pp.

Patton, J. C., and J. C. Avise. 1983. An empirical evaluation of qualitative 
      Hennegian analyses of protein electrophoretic data. Journal of Molecular 
      Evolution 19:244-254.

Patton, J. C., and J. C. Avise. 1985. Evolutionary genetics of birds IV. Rates 
      of protein divergence in waterfowl (Anatidae). Genetica 68:129-143.

Pennant, T. 1785. Arctic zoology. Vol. 2., Class 2. Birds. Henry Hughs, London, 
      England, UK. 586 pp., index, maps, and 163 pp. supplement. 

Phillips, J. C. 1912. A reconsideration of the American Black Ducks with 
      special reference to certain variations. Auk 29:295-306.

Phillips, J. C. 1915. Experimental studies of hybridization among ducks and 
      pheasants. Journal of Experimental Zoology 18:69-112.

Phillips, J. C. 1921. A further report on species crosses in birds. Genetics 6:
      366-383.

Reed, A., and H. Boyd. 1972. A revised key for sex and age determination of 
      Black Duck wings. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada. 
      15 pp., 2 Tables, 1 Fig.

Rogers, J. P., and J. H. Patterson. 1984. The American Black Duck population 
      and its management. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and 
      Natural Resources Conference 49:527-534.

Ross, R. K., and D. Fillman. 1990. Distribution of American Black Duck and 
      Mallard in northern Ontario. Canadian Wildlife Service Progress Note 189. 
      5 pp.

Rusch, D. H., C. D. Ankney, H. Boyd, J. R. Longcore, F. Montalbano, III, J. K. 
      Ringelman, and V. D. Stotts. 1989. Population ecology and harvest of the 
      American Black Duck: a review. Wildlife Society Bulletin 17:379-406.

Ruthven, J. A., and W. Zimmerman. 1965. Top flight. Speed index to waterfowl of 
      North America. Moebius Printing Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 112 pp.

Sanderson, C. J. 1993. Courtship and pair formation between American Black 
      Ducks and Mallards during winter in Massachusetts. M.S. thesis, University
      of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA. 53 pp.

Smithe, F. B. 1974a. Naturalist's color guide. The American Museum of Natural 
      History, New York, New York, USA. 8 pp. + 8 pp. of color swatches.

Smithe, F. B. 1974b. Naturalist's color guide supplement. The American Museum of 
      Natural History, New York, New York, USA. 229 pp.

Spencer, H. E., Jr. (compiler and editor). 1980. Black Duck management plan for 
      North America: 1980-2000. Atlantic Flyway Council. Vol. 1. 42 pp.; Vol. 
      2. 124 pp.

Spencer, H. E., Jr. 1981. The Black Duck-status and management problems. 
      International Waterfowl Symposium 4:134-138 + 19 figures.

Spencer, H. E., Jr. 1986. Black Duck. Pages 855-869 in R. L. DiSilvestro, 
      editor. Audubon Wildlife Report 1986. National Audubon Society, New York,
      New York, USA.

Steiner, A. J. 1984. Mid-winter waterfowl inventory, Atlantic Flyway, 1954-1984 
      trend analysis. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 5, Newton Corner, 
      Massachusetts, USA. 284 pp.

Wetmore, A. 1965. Water, prey and game birds of North America. National 
      Geographic Society, Washington, D.C., USA 464 pp.

Wing, L. 1943. Relative distribution of Mallard and American Black Duck in 
      winter. Auk 60:438-439.

Wright, B. S. 1954. High tide and an east wind-the story of the Black Duck. 
      The Stackpole Company, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and the Wildlife 
      Management Institute, Washington, D.C., USA 162 pp.

Previous Section -- Acknowledgments
Return to Contents
Next Section -- Appendix

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/birds/diplume/litcite.htm
Page Contact Information: Webmaster
Page Last Modified: Friday, 01-Feb-2013 19:11:33 EST
Menlo Park, CA [caww55]