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Description and Identification of American
Black Duck, Mallard, and Hybrid Wing Plumage

Appendix


This Appendix is a chronological list of critical literature selected from more than 200 items reviewed to assess historical trends in published descriptions of Black Ducks and Mallards. All sources known to us were searched for descriptions of the presence/absence of white on the wing dorsum and ventral wing coloration. References found redundant because of reprinting, incomplete revision, wholesale paraphrasing by contemporaneous authors, or later publication of field guides and regional ornithologies based upon previous works were deleted from further consideration after initial review. Although many of the remaining works in this Appendix are not entirely independent of one another-contemporaneous authors were no doubt aware of one another's work-unique text in these citations and the overall level of detail in descriptions provide evidence that these authors were describing many birds from specimens in hand or from notes taken from such specimens by others. The citations in this Appendix are thus a source of definitive categorization of the changes in descriptions of Black Ducks from 1785 to date. Illustrators, if known to be different from the authors, are shown in parentheses.
Latham, J. 1785. A general synopsis of birds. Volume 3, Part 2. Leigh and 
      Sotheby, London, England, UK. 329-628 + unnumbered pages.

Pennant, T. 1785. Arctic zoology. Volume 2, Class 2. Birds. Henry Hughs, London, 
      England, UK. 586 pp., index, maps, and 163 pp. supplement.

Linné, C. von. 1788. Systema naturae per regnatria naturae. Tom 1, Pars II. 
      Gmelin, Leipzig, Germany. 501-1032.

Wilson, A. 1814. American ornithology or the natural history of the birds of 
      the United States. Volume 8. Bradford and Inskeep, Philadelphia, 
      Pennsylvania, USA. 146 pp.

Bonaparte, C. L. 1828. The genera of North American birds and a synopsis of the 
      species found within the territory of the United States. Extracted from 
      the Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. J. Seymour, New 
      York, New York, USA. 451 pp.

Nuttall, T. 1834. A manual of the ornithology of the United States and of 
      Canada. The water birds. Hilliard, Gray and Co. Boston, Massachusetts, 
      USA. 627 pp.

Audubon, J. J. 1838. Ornithological biography. Volume 4. Adam and Charles Black, 
      Edinburgh, Scotland. 618 pp.

Audubon, J. J. 1839. The birds of America. Vol. 3. George R. Lockwood, New York, 
      New York, USA. 233 pp.

Brewer, T. M. 1840. Wilson's American Ornithology with notes by Jardine: to 
      which is added a synopsis of American birds, including those described by 
      Bonaparte, Audubon, Nuttall and Richardson. Otis Broaders and Company, 
      Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 746 pp.

Giraud, J. P., Jr. 1844. Birds of Long Island. Wiley and Putnam, New York, New 
      York, USA. 392 pp.

Baird, S. F. 1858. Reports of exploration and surveys to ascertain the most 
      practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi 
      River to the Pacific Ocean. Part 2 "Birds" in Vol. 9. Executive Document, 
      33rd Congress, 2nd Session, No. 78. A. O. P. Nicholson, Washington, D. C., 
      USA. LVI + 1005 pp.

Baird, S. F., J. Cassin, and G. N. Lawrence. 1860. The birds of North America. 
      Vol. 1. Text. (Revision of 1858 edition by Baird). J. B. Lippincott and 
      Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. 1005 pp.

Samuels, E. A. 1870. The birds of New England and adjacent states. 5th ed., 
      revised. Noyes, Holmes and Company, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 591 pp.

Coues, E. 1872. Key to North American birds. Dodd and Mead, New York, New York, 
      USA. 361 pp.

Studer, J. H. 1881. The birds of North America. Jacob H. Studer and Company, 
      New York, New York, USA. 182 pp. 

Stearns, W. A. (E. Coues, editor). 1883. New England bird life. Part 2. Non-
      oscine passerines, birds of prey, game and water birds. Lee and Shepard, 
      Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 409 pp.

Baird, S. F., T. M. Brewer, and R. Ridgway. 1884. The water birds of North 
      America. Vol. 1. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard 
      College, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Volume 12. 537 pp.

Coues, E. 1884. Key to North American birds. 2nd ed. Estes and Lauriat, Boston, 
      Massachusetts, USA. 863 pp.

Ridgway, R. 1887. A manual of North American birds. J. B. Lippincott Company, 
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. 631 pp.

Warren, B. H. 1890. Report on the birds of Pennsylvania. 2nd ed. Office of the 
      Ornithologist of the State Board of Agriculture. 434 pp.

Nuttall, T. (revised by M. A. Chamberlain). 1891. A popular handbook of 
      ornithology of the United States and Canada based on Nuttall's manual. 
      Vol. 2. Game and water birds. Little, Brown & Company, Boston, 
      Massachusetts, USA. 431 pp.

Hatch, P. L., and H. F. Nachtrieb. 1892. Notes on the birds of Minnesota. 1st 
      Report of the State Zoologist. Geology and Natural History Survey of 
      Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. 487 pp.

McIlwraith, T. 1894. The birds of Ontario. 2nd ed. William Briggs, Toronto, 
      Ontario, Canada. 426 pp.

Chapman, F. M. 1895. Handbook of birds of eastern North America. Appleton and 
      Company, New York, New York, USA. 421 pp.

Ridgway, R. 1895. A descriptive catalogue of the birds of Illinois. Vol. 2, Part 
      1 (concluded). Illinois Natural History Survey.  H. W. Rokker, 
      Springfield, Illinois, USA. 282 pp. + 33 plates.

Maynard, C. J. 1896. The birds of eastern North America; with original 
      descriptions of all the species which occur east of the Mississippi River, 
      between the Arctic Circle and the Gulf of Mexico, with full notes upon 
      their habits, etc. Revised ed. Newtonville, Massachusetts, USA. 721 pp.

Apgar, A. C. 1898. Birds of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. 
      American Book Company, New York, New York, USA. 415 pp.

Butler, A. W. 1898. The birds of Indiana. Pages 515-1197 in 22nd Report, 
      Department of Geology and Natural Resources of Indiana, 1897.

Cory, C. B. 1899. The birds of eastern North America. Part 1. Key to the 
      families and species. Special edition printed for the Field Columbian
      Museum, Chicago, Illinois, USA. 386 pp.

Grinnell, G. B. 1901. American duck shooting. Forest and Stream Publications, 
      New York, New York, USA. 627 pp.

Blanchan, N. 1902. Birds that hunt and are hunted. Doubleday, Page and 
      Company, New York, New York, USA. 359 pp.

Chapman, F. M. 1903. Color key to North American birds. Doubleday, Page and 
      Company, New York, New York, USA. 312 pp.

Dawson, W. L. 1903. The birds of Ohio. Wheaton Publishing Company, Columbus, 
      Ohio, USA. 671 pp.

Dionne, C. E. 1906. Les oiseaux de la Province de Québec. Dussault and Proulx, 
      Québec, P. Québec, Canada. 414 pp.

Rich, W. H. 1907. Feathered game of the northeast. Thomas Y. Crowell and 
      Company, New York, New York, USA. 432 pp.

Knight, O. W. 1908. The birds of Maine. C. H. Glass and Company, Bangor, Maine, 
      USA. 693 pp.

Stone, W. 1908. The birds of New Jersey. Part 2. Report of the New Jersey State 
      Museum. 432 pp. + 84 plates.

Knowlton, F. H. 1909. Birds of the world: a popular account. American Nature 
      Series. Group 1, Natural History. Henry Holt and Company, New York, New 
      York, USA. 873 pp.

Eaton, E. H. 1910. Birds of New York. Part 1. New York State Museum, Memoir 12. 
      New York State Education Department, University of the State of New York, 
      Albany, New York, USA. 501 pp. (Illustrations by L. A. Fuertes.)

Barrows, W. B. 1912. Michigan bird life. Special Bulletin, Department of Zoology 
      and Physiology of the Michigan Agricultural College, East Lansing, 
      Michigan, USA. 818 pp. 

Chapman, F. M. 1912. Handbook of birds of eastern North America. Revised ed. D. 
      Appleton and Company, New York, New York, USA. 530 pp.

Forbush, E. H. 1916. Game birds, wildfowl and shore birds of Massachusetts and 
      adjacent states. 2nd ed. Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture, Boston, 
      Massachusetts, USA. 636 pp.

Taverner, P. A. 1919. Birds of eastern Canada. Canada Department of Mines, 
      Geological Survey. Memoir 104(3), Biology Series. 297 pp. (Illustrations 
      by F. C. Hennessey.)

Hoffman, R. 1923. A guide to the birds: prepared with special reference to New 
      England and eastern New York, but serviceable in all the northern states 
      east of the Mississippi River. New ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 
      Massachusetts, USA. 357 pp.

Phillips, J. C. 1923. A natural history of the ducks. Volume 2. The genus Anas. 
      Houghton Mifflin Company (The Riverside Press). New York, New York and 
      Boston, Massachusetts, USA. xii + 409 pp. (Illustrations by A. Brooks.)

Forbush, E. H. 1925. Birds of Massachusetts and other New England states. Part 
      1, Water birds, marsh birds and shore birds. Massachusetts Department of 
      Agriculture, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 481 pp. (Illustrations by L. A. 
      Fuertes.)

Sutton, G. M. 1928. Birds of Pennsylvania. McFarland Company, Harrisburg, 
      Pennsylvania, USA. 170 pp.

Chapman, F. M. 1932. Handbook of birds of eastern North America. 2nd ed. D. 
      Appleton and Company, New York, New York, USA. 581 pp.

Grosvenor, G., and A. Wetmore. 1932. The book of birds. Volume 1. National 
      Geographic Society, Washington, D.C., USA 356 pp.

Howell, A. H. 1932. Florida bird life. Florida Department of Game and Fresh 
      Water Fish and Bureau of Biological Survey, U.S. Department of 
      Agriculture. 579 pp.

Roberts, T. S. 1932a. The birds of Minnesota. Volume 1. University of Minnesota 
      Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. 691 pp. (Illustrations by A. Brooks.) 

Roberts, T. S. 1932b. The birds of Minnesota. Volume 2. University of Minnesota 
      Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. 821 pp.

Roberts, T. S. 1934. Bird portraits in color. Two hundred ninety-five North 
      American species. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 
      USA. 92 plates, unnumbered text, and index.

Taverner, P. A. 1934. Birds of Canada. Canada Department of Mines, National 
      Museum of Canada. Bulletin 72, Biology Series No. 19. 445 pp.

Bagg, A. C., and S. A. Eliot, Jr. 1937. Birds of the Connecticut Valley in 
      Massachusetts. Thomas Todd Company, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 813 pp.

Forbush, E. H. (revised and abridged by J. B. May). 1939. Natural History of 
      the birds of eastern and central North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., 
      Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 554 pp. (Illustrations by L. A. Fuertes.)

Kortright, F. H. 1942. Ducks, geese and swans of North America. Stackpole 
      Company, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and the Wildlife Management Institute, 
      Washington, D.C., USA. 476 pp. (Illustrations by T. M. Shortt.)

Pearson, T. G., C. S. Brimley, and H. H. Brimley. 1942. Birds of North Carolina. 
      North Carolina Department of Agriculture, State Museum. 416 pp.

Musgrove, J. W., and M. R. Musgrove. 1943. Waterfowl in Iowa. State 
      Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa, USA. 113 pp. + index.

Pirnie, M. D. 1943. Michigan upland game, shore and marsh birds and waterfowl. 
      First published on the Wildlife Page of the Detroit News from July 20, 
      1941 to March 14, 1943. The Detroit News, Detroit, Michigan, USA. 80 pp. 
      (Drawings from paintings by G. M. Sutton and L. B. Hunt.)

Heilner, V. C. 1946. Our American game birds. Doubleday and Company, Inc., 
      Garden City, New York, New York, USA. 178 pp. (Illustrations by L. B. 
      Hunt.)

Short, A. H., and B. W. Cartwright. 1948. Sports Afield collection of know your 
      ducks and geese. Sports Afield Publishing Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 
      USA. Prints and text; no pagination.

Peters, H. S., and T. D. Burleigh. 1951. The birds of Newfoundland. Department 
      of Natural Resources, Province of Newfoundland, St. Johns, Newfoundland, 
      Canada. 431 pp. (Illustrations by R. T. Peterson.)

Pough, R. H. 1951. Audubon water bird guide. National Audubon Society. 
      Doubleday and Company, Inc., Garden City, New Jersey, USA. 352 pp.

Delacour, J. 1954. The waterfowl of the world. Volume 2. The dabbling ducks. 
      Country Life Limited, London, England, UK. 232 pp. (Illustrations by P. 
      Scott.)

Wright, B. S. 1954. High tide and an east wind: the story of the Black Duck. 
      The Stackpole Company, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and the Wildlife 
      Management Institute, Washington, D.C., USA. 162 pp.

Scott, P. 1957. A coloured key to the wildfowl of the world. Wildfowl Trust. 
      Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, England, UK. 91 pp.

Tufts, R. W. 1961. The birds of Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, Nova 
      Scotia, Canada. 481 pp.

Ruthven, J. A., and W. Zimmerman. 1965. Top flight: speed index to waterfowl of 
      North America. Moebius Printing Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 112 pp.

Wetmore, A. 1965. Water, prey and game birds of North America. National 
      Geographic Society, Washington, D.C., USA. 464 pp. (Illustrations by W. 
      A. Weber.)

Godfrey, W. E. 1966. The birds of Canada. National Museum of Canada Bulletin 
      203, Bird Series No. 73. 428 pp. (Illustrations by J. A. Crosby.)

Robbins, C. S., B. Bruun, and H. S. Zim. 1966. A guide to field identification: 
      birds of North America. Golden Press, New York, New York, USA. 340 pp. 
      (Illustrations by A. Singer.)

Oberholser, H. C. 1974. The bird life of Texas. Volume 1. University of Texas 
      Press, Austin, Texas, USA. 530 pp. (Illustrations by L. A. Fuertes.)

Johnsgard, P. A. 1975. Waterfowl of North America. Indiana University Press, 
      Bloomington, Indiana, USA. 575 pp.

Ogilvie, M. A. 1975. Ducks of Britain and Europe. T. and A. D. Poyser, 
      Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, England. 206 pp.

Bellrose, F. C. 1976. Ducks, geese and swans of North America. 2nd ed. Stackpole 
      Books, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA. 549 pp.

Palmer, R. S., editor. 1976. Handbook of North American birds. Volume 2. 
      Waterfowl (Part 2). Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. 
      521 pp.

Cramp, S., and K. E. L. Simmons. 1977. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the 
      Middle East and North Africa: the birds of the western Palearctic. Vol. 
      1. Ostriches to ducks. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. 722 pp. 
      (Illustrations by N. W. Cusa.)

Heintzelman, D. S. 1978. North American ducks, geese, and swans. Winchester 
      Press, New York, New York, USA. 236 pp.

Hines, B. 1978. Ducks at a distance: a waterfowl identification guide. 
      Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, 
      D.C., USA. 53 pp.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1978. Ducks, geese and swans of the world. University of 
      Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. 387 pp.

Farrand, J., editor. 1983. The Audubon Society master guide to birding 1. Loons 
      to sandpipers. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York, USA. 447 pp.

Madge, S., and H. Burn. 1988. Waterfowl: an identification guide to the ducks, 
      geese and swans of the world. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 
      Massachusetts, USA. 298 pp.

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