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Habitat Distribution and Territoriality In the Dickcissel and Red-Winged Blackbird

Literature Cited

Brown, J.L. 1964. The evolution of diversity in avian territorial systems. 
     Wilson Bull., 76: 160-169.
___________ 1969. Territorial behavior and population regulation in birds. 
     Wilson Bull., 81: 293-329.
Caccamise, D. F. 1977. Breeding success and nest site characteristics of the
     red-winged blackbird. Wilson Bull., 89: 396-403.

Case, N. A., and O.H. Hewitt. 1963. Nesting and productivity of the red-winged
     blackbird in relation to habitat. Living Bird, 2: 7-20.

Dolbeer, R. A. 1976. Reproductive rate and temporal spacing of nesting of
     red-winged blackbirds in upland habitat. Auk, 93: 343-355.

Emlen, J. T. Jr., and R. W. Nero. 1951. An experimental study of territorial
     behavior in breeding red-winged blackbirds. Condor, 53: 105-116.
Fretwell, S. D. 1969. On territorial behavior and other factors influencing
     habitat distribution in birds. 3. Breeding success in a local population 
     of field sparrows. Acta Biotheoretica, 19: 45-52.
Fretwell, S. D., and J. S. Calver. 1969. On territorial behavior and other 
     factors influencing habitat distribution in birds. 2. Sex ratio variation 
     in the dickcissel. Acta Biotheoretica, 19: 37-44.
Fretwell, S. D., and H. L. Lucas, Jr. 1969. On territorial behavior and other
     factors influencing habitat distribution in birds. 1. Theoretical 
     development. Acta Biotheoretica, 19: 16-36.

Fretwell, S. D. 1977. Is the dickcissel a threatened species? Am. Birds, 31:
Harmeson, J. P. 1974. Breeding ecology of the dickcissel. Auk, 91: 348-359.

Holm, C. H. 1973. Breeding sex ratios, territoriality, and reproductive success 
     in the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). Ecology, 54:
Huxley, J. S. 1934. A natural experiment on the territorial instinct. Brit.
     Birds, 27: 270-277.
Johnston, R.F. 1961. Population movements of birds. Condor, 63: 386-388.

Kluyver, H. N., and L. Tinbergen. 1953. Territory and the regulation of density
     in titmice. Arch. Neerl. Zool., 10: 265-289.
Lack, D. 1964. The natural regulation of animal numbers. Clarendon Press, 
     Oxford, viii + 343pp.
Linford, J. H. 1935. The life history of the thick - billed redwinged black-
     bird, Agelaius phoeniceus fortis Ridgway in Utah. M.S.
     Thesis, Utah Library.
Nero, R. W. 1956. A behavior study of the red-winged blackbird. Wilson Bull.,
     68: 5-37. 
Nice, M. M. 1941. The role of territory in bird life. Am. Midl. Nat., 26: 
Orians, G. H. 1961. The ecology of blackbird (Agelaius) social systems.
     Ecol. Monogr., 31: 285-312.
Orians, G. H., and G. Collier. 1963. Competition and blackbird social systems.
     Evolution, 17: 449-459.
Schartz, R. L., and J. L. Zimmerman. 1971. The time and energy budget of the
     male dickcissel (Spiza americana). Condor, 73: 65-76.
Verner, J. 1977. On the adaptive significance of territoriality. Am. Nat., 
     3: 769-775.
Weatherhead, P. J., and R. J. Robertson. 1977. Male behavior and female
     recruitment in the red-winged blackbird. Wilson Bull., 89: 583-589.
Zimmerman, J. L. 1966. Polygyny in the dickcissel. Auk, 83: 534-546.

________________ 1971. The territory and its density dependent effect in
     Spiza americana. Auk, 88: 591-612.

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