Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Brown, J.L. 1964. The evolution of diversity in avian territorial systems. Wilson Bull., 76: 160-169. ___________ 1969. Territorial behavior and population regulation in birds. Wilson Bull., 81: 293-329. Caccamise, D. F. 1977. Breeding success and nest site characteristics of the red-winged blackbird. Wilson Bull., 89: 396-403. Case, N. A., and O.H. Hewitt. 1963. Nesting and productivity of the red-winged blackbird in relation to habitat. Living Bird, 2: 7-20. Dolbeer, R. A. 1976. Reproductive rate and temporal spacing of nesting of red-winged blackbirds in upland habitat. Auk, 93: 343-355. Emlen, J. T. Jr., and R. W. Nero. 1951. An experimental study of territorial behavior in breeding red-winged blackbirds. Condor, 53: 105-116. Fretwell, S. D. 1969. On territorial behavior and other factors influencing habitat distribution in birds. 3. Breeding success in a local population of field sparrows. Acta Biotheoretica, 19: 45-52. Fretwell, S. D., and J. S. Calver. 1969. On territorial behavior and other factors influencing habitat distribution in birds. 2. Sex ratio variation in the dickcissel. Acta Biotheoretica, 19: 37-44. Fretwell, S. D., and H. L. Lucas, Jr. 1969. On territorial behavior and other factors influencing habitat distribution in birds. 1. Theoretical development. Acta Biotheoretica, 19: 16-36. Fretwell, S. D. 1977. Is the dickcissel a threatened species? Am. Birds, 31: 923-932. Harmeson, J. P. 1974. Breeding ecology of the dickcissel. Auk, 91: 348-359. Holm, C. H. 1973. Breeding sex ratios, territoriality, and reproductive success in the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). Ecology, 54: 356-365. Huxley, J. S. 1934. A natural experiment on the territorial instinct. Brit. Birds, 27: 270-277. Johnston, R.F. 1961. Population movements of birds. Condor, 63: 386-388. Kluyver, H. N., and L. Tinbergen. 1953. Territory and the regulation of density in titmice. Arch. Neerl. Zool., 10: 265-289. Lack, D. 1964. The natural regulation of animal numbers. Clarendon Press, Oxford, viii + 343pp. Linford, J. H. 1935. The life history of the thick - billed redwinged black- bird, Agelaius phoeniceus fortis Ridgway in Utah. M.S. Thesis, Utah Library. Nero, R. W. 1956. A behavior study of the red-winged blackbird. Wilson Bull., 68: 5-37. Nice, M. M. 1941. The role of territory in bird life. Am. Midl. Nat., 26: 441-487. Orians, G. H. 1961. The ecology of blackbird (Agelaius) social systems. Ecol. Monogr., 31: 285-312. Orians, G. H., and G. Collier. 1963. Competition and blackbird social systems. Evolution, 17: 449-459. Schartz, R. L., and J. L. Zimmerman. 1971. The time and energy budget of the male dickcissel (Spiza americana). Condor, 73: 65-76. Verner, J. 1977. On the adaptive significance of territoriality. Am. Nat., 3: 769-775. Weatherhead, P. J., and R. J. Robertson. 1977. Male behavior and female recruitment in the red-winged blackbird. Wilson Bull., 89: 583-589. Zimmerman, J. L. 1966. Polygyny in the dickcissel. Auk, 83: 534-546. ________________ 1971. The territory and its density dependent effect in Spiza americana. Auk, 88: 591-612.