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Interpreting Evidence of Depredation of Duck Nests
in the Prairie Pothole Region

Appendix A


Appendix A. Sources of information and amount of detail from literature and present study concerning evidence of depredation at duck nests destroyed by principal predators of duck nests in the Prairie Pothole Region.

         Predator Speciesa
Source Data type Egg type Coyote Red fox Raccoon Striped skunk American badger Mink Weaselsb Franklin's
ground squirrel
Black-billed magpie American crow Gullsc
Stoddard
(1932)
Nestsd Quail          L-Ve                     
Darrow
(1938)
Nestsd Grouse    L-V L-V L-V    L-V L-V       L-V   
Sowls
(1948)
Nestsf Duckg          Lg-V                     
   Eggsd Duckg                   Lg-V       Lg-V   
Rearden
(1951)
Nests Duck                L-V               
   Nestsf Duck, chicken    M-V M-E L-V                M-V   
Einarsen
(1956)
Nests Pheasant          L-V                L-V   
Sooter
(1946)
Nests Duck M-E                              
   Eggsd Chicken L-E                              
Kruuk
(1964)
Nests Gull    L-E                           
Teer
(1964)
Nests Duck                   L-E            
   Eggsd Duck, chicken                   Lg-E            
Tinbergen
(1965)
Nests Gull    M-E                           
Barkley
(1972)
Eggsh Grouse                   L-V            
Montevecchi (1976) Eggsh Chicken, quail                            S-E   
Baker
(1978)
Nestsf Turkey, chicken L-E    S-E M-E                     
Sargeant et al. (1987) Nestsf, Eggsh Duck                      S-E         
Fleskes
(1988)
Nests Duck                   S-E            
   Eggsd Duck                   L-E            
Aufforth el. al. (1990) Nests Duck                L-V               
Trevor et al. (1991) Nestsf Chickeni    S-E    S-E                     
Present Study Nestsj Duck S-E S-E S-E S-E                     
   Eggsd Duck                L-E               
   Nestsf Duck    L-E L-E L-E          M-E S-E S-E S-E
   Nests Duck    L-E    S-V S-E L-V               
   Eggsh Duck                      L-E L-E L-E M-E
a Codes refer to amount of data and detail of descriptions as follows: L = limited data (1-5 nests or individual predators known or thought to have been involved), M = moderate data (6-15 nests or individual predators known or thought to have been involved), S = substantial data (≥16 nests or individual predators known or thought to have been involved), E = descriptions include explicit details, V = descriptions are vague.
b Ermine and long-tailed weasel.
c Ring-billed gull and California gull.
d Loose eggs depredated by captive predators in cages, pens, or enclosures.
e Includes data for the spotted skunk.
f Artificial nests with clutch depredated by free-ranging predators.
g Estimated from information provided.
h Loose eggs depredated by free-ranging predators.
i Eggs were boiled for 1 min to solidify the albumen and, therefore, the results were not included in the discussion in text.
j Artificial nests with clutch depredated by captive predators in a compound, enclosure, or both.

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