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Temporal Flexibility of Reproduction in
Temperate-breeding Dabbling Ducks


This study benefitted from the assistance of numerous individuals and the support of administrators at Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. I thank Ron Reynolds, Habitat and Populations Evaluation Team of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bismarck, North Dakota, for allowing me to use a subset of his duck nest records collected during nest surveys from 1993 to 1995. I am grateful to the following colleagues who participated in the fall brood surveys: Bruce Barbour, Bonnie Bowen, Deborah Buhl, Tom Buhl, Dave Brandt, Lewis Cowardin, Bobby Cox, Harold Duebbert, Chris Dwyer, Betty Euliss, Ray Greenwood, Harold Kantrud, Tom Klett, Diane Larson, John Lokemoen, Wesley Newton, Pamela Pietz, Alan Sargeant, Terry Shaffer, Marsha Sovada, Larry Strong, and Robert Woodward. I appreciate the help provided by Paul Padding of the Migratory Bird Management Office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for coordinating collection of data on fall shot flightless juvenile dabbling ducks submitted by a random sample of hunters for the Fall Duck Harvest Survey during 1993 to 1995. I thank Terry Shaffer and Wesley Newton for assistance in designing fall brood surveys, Dave Brandt for helping set up surveys and process information, Dave Brandt and Glen Sargeant for preparing figures, and Jane Austin and Pamela Pietz for bringing to my attention pertinent literature. I am grateful to Glen Sargeant and Julie Beiser for support in statistical analyses and Cynthia Bluhm, Bobby Cox, Tom Hahn, Frank McKinney, Glen Sargeant, John Wingfield, and two anonymous reviewers for making valuable comments on earlier drafts of this manuscript. Last, I want to thank my parents for allowing me to spend much time afield observing birds in my youth, which led to observations that prompted the current study.
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