USGS - science for a changing world

Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

  Home About NPWRC Our Science Staff Employment Contacts Common Questions About the Site

The Cranes

Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan

Threats


The world’s cranes face a wide array of existing and potential threats. The threats and their approximate levels of impact on the various crane species are summarized in Table 1.3. Particular threats for each species are discussed within the species accounts in Section 2. Anthropogenic threats to cranes can be divided into several categories: habitat loss and degradation; direct exploitation; poisoning; and other anthropogenic threats.

Table 1.3 Threats to cranes
C Critical threat (has been, or has the potential to be, a major factor in the decline of the population size and/or restriction of the species' range)
S Significant threat (has been, or has the potential to be, an important though not leading factor in the decline of the population size and/or restriction of the species' range)
L Lesser threat (has been or has the potential to be, a detrimantal factor in some localities or for some populations, but not with a significant or critcal impact on the species as a whole)
Type of Threat B.p. B.r. A.v. A.p. B.c. G.l. G.c. G.an. G.r. G.v. G.m. G.g. G.am. G.n. G.j.
Habitat Loss and Degradation
Conversion of wetlands S C L L C C S C S C S S L S C
Over-exploitation of wetland resources S S L L C C L C S S S S S L S
Agricultural conversion of grasslands C L C S - - L1 - - C - L L L S
Changes in agricultural land use - C S C S - C S S S S S - S S
Other agricultural impacts (see text) S S - S - S - - L L - - - L L
Dams and water diversions C L - L C C C S - C S S S S C
Urban expansion and land development - - - L - L L2,3 S L5 S S - S L S
Deforestation S S - - - - - - - - L L - L L
Afforestation - - - C L - L2 - - - L - - - -
Other changes in vegetation (see text) - - - - L S - - S - - - C - C
Coastal marsh and shoreline erosion - - - - - - - - - - - - C - S
Pollution and environmental contamination - - - - L S - L - S S - C S C
Oil development L - - - - S - - - - L L C - C
Collision with utility lines - - L L L - L - L - L L S - L
Direct exploitation
Overhunting - - S - - C4 L - - - - S - - -
Poaching S C - L - - - - - - - - L S -
Live trapping for commercial trade S S L S L - - S - - - - - - -
Live trapping for domestication L L - L - - - - L - - L - - -
Poisoning - L L C S L L - L L L - - - L
Other anthropogenic threats
Human interference or disturbance C S S - L L L2 S L5 L L L S L L
Warfare and polictical instability C S - - L L - S S S L L L S S
Lack of effective legislation and administration L L - - - - - - - S - - - - L
Lack of knowledge and public support S S L S S S L1 L S L L - - L L
Biological factors
Predation - - - - - - L2 - L - L - L6 L -
Exotic species - - - - - - - L L - - - - - -
Genetic and demographic problems of small populations - - - - - C L1,2 - - - - - S - L
Disease - - - - - - L - - S S - L - L
Other environmental factors (storms, drought, etc.) S L - - L S L - - - - - S - -
Notes:
1. Cuban Sandhill Crane
2. Mississippi Sandhill Crane
3. Florida Sandhill Crane
4. Central population (Siberian Crane)
5. Southern population (Brolga)
6. Florida population (Whooping Crane)
B.p. = Belearica pavonina
B.r. = Belearica regulorum
A.v. = Anthropoides virgo
A.p. = Anthropoides paradisea
B.c. = Bugeranus carunculatus
G.l. = Grus leucogeranus
G.c. = Grus canadensis
G.a. = Grus antigone
G.r. = Grus rubicundus
G.v. = Grus vipio
G.m. = Grus monachus
G.g. = Grus grus
G.a. = Grus americana
G.n. = Grus nigricollis
G.j. = Grus japonensis


Previous Section--Conservation Status
Return to Contents
Next Section--Threats: Habitat Loss and Degradation

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/birds/cranes/threats.htm
Page Contact Information: Webmaster
Page Last Modified: Friday, 01-Feb-2013 19:06:48 EST
Reston, VA [vaww55]