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Revised Checklist of North Dakota Birds

Craig A. Faanes and Robert E. Stewart
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Science
Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Jamestown, North Dakota 58401

JPG -- Male Black-Headed Grosbeak
Male Black-Headed Grosbeak
Photo by Chris Grondahl

This resource is based on the following source (Northern Prairie Publication 0503):

Faanes, Craig A., and Robert E. Stewart.  1982.  Revised checklist of North 
     Dakota birds.  The Prairie Naturalist 14(3):81-92. 
This resource should be cited as:
Faanes, Craig A., and Robert E. Stewart.  1982.  Revised checklist of North 
     Dakota birds.  The Prairie Naturalist 14(3):81-92.  Jamestown, ND: 
     Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.
     (Version 16JUL97).



During the years since publication of the most recent checklist of North Dakota birds by Stewart (1971), the status of several species has changed. At the same time, a growing interest in bird observation has continued to expand our knowledge of the State's avifauna. The North American Breeding Bird Survey (Bystrak 1981) now provides a means for comparison of yearly changes in breeding bird populations across the State. Christmas Bird Counts that have expanded in coverage throughout North Dakota (Randall 1980) are also providing important data on early winter distribution and abundance of many species. Also the "sport" of bird watching has become more popular, and numerous groups and individuals are amassing a considerable base of information on the occurrence, distribution, and relative abundance of most bird species in the State.

The occurrence and distribution of many species in North Dakota has been changing since the first settlers arrived. Because changes are still occurring, it is important to periodically update our information. The first bird list for the State (Wood 1923) included 292 accepted species. Nearly 30 years later, Randall (1952) included 316 species on a provisional list. Later, Stewart (1971) listed 339 acceptable species including 181 with breeding records and 19 additional hypothetical species.

During the period since Stewart's list was published, several changes have occurred in the taxonomy of North American birds (A.O.U. 1982) including some changes affecting species occurring in North Dakota. Additional field work across the State has resulted in the confirmation of breeding records for several species that earlier were suspected breeders. Stewart (1975) summarized breeding status as known up to that time. Increased observer interest has resulted in additional observations, photographs, and specimens which have verified the status of several species on the State list. The growing network of observers has increased the coverage of the organized reporting system established in 1970, which presents results in American Birds, published quarterly by the National Audubon Society.

Stewart (1971) stated that no official rules or guidelines existed for determining the validity of a species on the State list. Such guidelines were established in 1979 by the North Dakota Natural Science Society, which requires the documentation of unusual species or date observed. Records of bird occurrence in North Dakota are now permanently stored at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center and are available to other researchers. The official guidelines for determining the validity of a species occurrence in North Dakota are presented below.

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A species will be included on the valid list of North Dakota birds when both of the following criteria are satisfied:
  1. Its occurrence in the State is free of doubt as determined by fulfillment of at least one of the following:
    1. One or more clearly identifiable photographs is presented
    2. A correctly identified specimen is preserved and maintained in a museum or collection
    3. A fully audible voice reproduction is presented
    4. Three or more observations are obtained; each such observation or sight record must be supported by a completed documentation form submitted to the North Dakota Ornithological Records Committee (NDORC). No more than two of the sight records may be made by the same individual, and these must be separated in time and space. When three documented sight records acceptable and approved by NDORC have been reviewed, the species can then be added to the valid list based on sight records alone.
  2. The bird(s) occurred in the State as wild and free-flying, and there is no evidence to indicate it occurred as an escape or as a release from captivity.
A species will be placed on the hypothetical list when less than three acceptable sight records have accumulated, and none of the other criteria for the valid list has been met.

All observations of species not on the valid list in North Dakota will be reviewed by the NDORC. Supporting documentation is to be submitted by the observer on a standardized form. These completed forms are submitted at the end of each reporting period to the appropriate compiler of North Dakota records for American Birds. Observations of casual, extra-limital, out-of-season, or other unusual occurrences will be reviewed by NDORC to determine their appropriateness as acceptable records.

Acceptance of a record that is classified under criteria 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 above (primarily for first State records) will be made by a unanimous decision of the NDORC. Records classified under criteria 1.4 above (including subsequent State records, unusual dates, or out-of-range birds) will be accepted or rejected by a simple majority vote of the Committee.

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This current list includes 365 species of which 353 are considered valid and 12 are hypothetical. A breakdown of this list includes 207 species that nest or have nested, 95 that occur as migrants, 28 accidental, 21 occasional, 2 extirpated, and 1 extinct species. Species that have nested at least once in the State are indicated with an asterisk (*) in the list. An additional 16 species that are either summer residents, casual, or primarily migrants are considered to be inferred nesting species, based on observations of territorial behavior in the proper habitat during normal breeding periods. These species are indicated by (i) before their name in the list. Including those with inferred breeding status, at least 223 species can now be considered components of the breeding avifauna of North Dakota.

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Because of the varied nature of bird populations and movements, seasons are difficult to define. Many shorebird species overlap their northward and southward migrations with the summer season. White-rumped sandpiper and semipalmated sandpiper are only two of the species that are regularly found migrating north in early and mid-June, whereas the lesser yellowlegs is regularly found in southward migration during late June. Most arctic nesting shorebird species on southward migration are well-distributed across the State by mid-July. Realizing that confusion may occur among observers if summer status is indicated we have deferred from providing abundance status during the summer season. In general, the abundance classification for shorebirds during spring or fall migration are applicable to northbound or southbound birds during the appropriate portion of the breeding season. For conformity, seasons used in this report are defined as:
Spring - March 15-May 31
Summer - June 1-July 31
Fall - August 1-November 15
Winter - November 15-March 15.
Terms used in relating relative abundance of each species according to season are adopted primarily from Faanes (1981).

Abundant (Ab)
A species that occurs in very large numbers and is easily observed because of its habits and conspicuousness.
Common (C)
A species that occurs in large numbers.
Fairly Common (F)
A species that occurs in fair to moderate numbers.
Uncommon (U)
A species that occurs in low numbers.
Rare (R)
A species that occurs yearly somewhere in the State, but in very low numbers.
Occasional (O)
A rare species that occurs at intervals of 3-5 years.
Accidental (Ac)
A species that is not expected to occur again or that occurs very infrequently. This classification includes species that have occurred in the State three or fewer times.
Extirpated (E)
A species that formerly occurred naturally in the State.

Although occurrence of many species is widespread across the State, others have either a discontinuous distribution (e.g., field sparrow) or are highly restricted in their range. This aspect of bird distribution posed problems when assigning abundance classifications among species. For example, the sage grouse is considered fairly common and the greater prairie-chicken is uncommon. Both species are fairly easily found within their range; the grouse in the extreme southwest and the prairie-chicken in the extreme southeast. Throughout this checklist, we have indicated the relative abundance of species that are locally more common than elsewhere in their range with parentheses ( ), bracketing the seasonal abundance category. For the most part, delineation of ranges for many of these species can be found in Stewart (1975).

Data used in assigning relative abundance categories for each species were derived from several sources. In addition to personal field experience in the State totalling 25 years between the authors, we also contacted numerous observers across the State for their input. Important published information included papers by Stewart and Kantrud (1972, 1973) and Stewart (1975).

The taxonomic order of species follows the most recent supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list (A.O.U. 1982).

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This paper has benefitted from the thoughtful analysis and comments of Gordon Berkey, Thomas Gatz, Douglas Johnson, Harold Kantrud, Gary Krapu, David and Sharon Lambeth, Ben Pinkowski, Robert Randall, and Paul Springer.

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American Ornithologists' Union. 1982. Thirty-fourth supplement to the American 
     Ornithologists' Union checklist of North American birds. Auk 99 (Suppl.):
     1CC- 16CC.
Bystrak, D. 1981. The North American Breeding Bird Survey. In: C. J. Ralph and 
     J. M. Scott, eds. Estimating numbers of terrestrial birds. Studies in Avian
     Biology 6:34-41.
Faanes, C. A. 1981. Birds of the St. Croix River Valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin.
     N. Am. Fauna 73. 196 pp.
Randall, R. N. 1952. A provisional checklist of birds of North Dakota. Mimeo Rep.
     23 pp.
Randall, R. N. 1980. Christmas Bird Counts for North Dakota- 1980. Prairie Nat.
Stewart, R. E. 1971. Checklist of birds in North Dakota. Prairie Nat. 3:3-12.
Stewart, R. E. 1975. Breeding birds of North Dakota. Tri-College Center for 
    Environmental Studies, Fargo. 295 pp.
Stewart, R. E., and H. A. Kantrud. 1972. Population estimates of breeding birds
     in North Dakota. Auk 89:766-788.
Stewart, R. E., and H. A. Kantrud. 1974. Breeding waterfowl populations in North
     Dakota. J. Wildl. Manage. 37:39-50.
Wood, N. A. 1923. A preliminary survey of the bird life of North Dakota. Univ. of
     Michigan, Mus. of Zool., Misc. Publ. No. 10. 96 pp.

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Revised Checklist of North Dakota Birds

								  Spring    Summer      Fall   Winter
    Red-throated loon (Gavia stellata):                                                  Ac
   *Common loon (Gavia immer):                                       U        (U)        U
   *Pied-billed grebe (Podilymbus podiceps):                         F         F         F
   *Horned grebe (Podiceps auritus):                                 F         F         F
   *Red-necked grebe (Podiceps grisegena):                           U        (F)        U
   *Eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis):                              C         C         C
   *Western grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis):                       F        (C)        F
   *American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos):              U        (C)        U
    Brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis):                                              Ac
   *Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus):                F        (F)        F
   *American bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus):                        F         F         F
   *Least bittern (Ixobrychus exilis):                               R        (R)        R
   *Great blue heron (Ardea herodias):                               F        (F)        F
    Great egret (Casmerodius albus):                                 R         R        (U)
    Snowy egret (Egretta thula):                                     O         O         O
   *Little blue heron (Egretta caerulea):                            O         O         O
   *Tricolored heron (Egretta tricolor):                             O         O         O
   *Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis):                                    R        (R)        R
   *Green heron (Butorides striatus):                               (R)       (R)       (R)
   *Black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax):               F        (C)        F
    Yellow-crowned night -heron (Nyctanassa violacea):               O         O
    White ibis (Eudocimus albus):                                    Ac
   *White-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi):                               O        (O)        O
    Wood stork (Mycteria americana):                                 Ac
    Fulvous whistling-duck (Dendrocygna bicolor):                              Ac        Ac
    Tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus):                                C                   C
   *Trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator):                                        E         Ac
    Greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons):                   F                   F
   *Snow goose (Chen caerulescens):                                  Ab        O         Ab        R
    Ross' goose (Chen rossii):                                       R                   R
    Brant (Branta bernicla):                                         O                   O
   *Canada goose (Branta canadensis):                                Ab       (F)        Ab        R
   *Wood duck (Aix sponsa):                                         (U)       (F)       (F)
   *Green-winged teal (Anas crecca):                                 F         U         C
   *American black duck (Anas rubripes):                             R         R         U         R
   *Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos):                                    Ab        C         Ab       (U)
   *Northern pintail (Anas acuta):                                   Ab        C         Ab        O
   *Blue-winged teal (Anas discors):                                 Ab        Ab        Ab
   *Cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera):                                 R         R         R
   *Northern shoveler (Anas clypeata):                               C         C         C
   *Gadwall (Anas strepera):                                         C         C         C         O
    Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope):                                 Ac                  Ac
   *American wigeon (Anas americana):                                C         U         C         R
   *Canvasback (Aythya valisineria):                                 F         F         C         O
   *Redhead (Aythya americana):                                      C         C         C         O
   *Ring-necked duck (Aythya collaris):                              U        (F)        F
    Greater scaup (Aythya marila):                                   R                   U
   *Lesser scaup (Aythya affinis):                                   Ab        U         Ab        O
    Common eider (Somateria mollissima):                                                 Ac        Ac
    Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histronicus):                                           Ac
    Oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis):                                    R                   R         O
    Black scoter (Melanitta nigra):                                  R                   R
    Surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata):                           R                   R         O
   *White-winged scoter (Melanitta fusca):                           R         E         R
   *Common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula):                           U        (R)        U         R
    Barrow's goldeneye (Bucephala islandica):                                                      O
   *Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola):                                  F        (R)        F         O
   *Hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus):                        U        (F)        U
   *Common merganser (Mergus merganser):                             F         E         F        (U)
    Red-breasted merganser (Mergus serrator):                        R                   R
   *Ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis):                                 C         C         C
   *Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura):                                 U        (F)        U
 Subfamily Pandioninae
   *Osprey (Pandion haliaetus):                                      R        (R)        R
 Subfamily Accipitrinae
    American swallow-tailed kite (Elanoides forficatus):             Ac
   *Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus):                           U        (R)        U        (R)
   *Northern harrier (Circus cyaneus):                               C         F         C         R
   *Sharp-shinned hawk (Accipiter striatus):                         F        (U)        F         O
   *Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii):                              U         U         U         O
   *Northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis):                           R        (O)        R         R
    Red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus):                           (O)       (O)       (O)
   *Broad-winged hawk (Buteo platypterus):                           U        (F)        U
   *Swainson's hawk (Buteo swainsoni):                               C         C         C
   *Red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis):                             C         F         C         R
   *Ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis):                                F        (C)        F
    Rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus):                               F                   F         R
   *Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos):                                F        (F)        F        (F)
   *American kestrel (Falco sparverius):                             C        (F)        C         R
   *Merlin (Falco columbarius):                                      U        (R)        U         R
   *Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus):                             R        (O)        R         O
    Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus):                                    O                   O         O
   *Prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus):                                U        (U)       (F)        R
 Subfamily Phasianinae
   *Gray partridge (Perdix perdix):                                  C         C         C         C
   *Ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus):                     (C)       (C)       (C)       (C)
 Subfamily Tetraoninae
    Willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus):                                                  Ac
   *Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus):                                (F)       (F)       (F)       (F)
   *Sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus):                        (F)       (F)       (F)       (F)
   *Greater prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido):                   (U)       (U)       (U)       (U)
   *Sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus):                  C         C         C         C
 Subfamily Meleagridinae
   *Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo):                              (U)       (U)       (U)       (U)
   *Yellow rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis):                       (R)       (R)       (R)
 (i)King rail (Rallus elegans):                                      O         O         O
   *Virginia rail (Rallus limicola):                                 F         F         F
   *Sora (Porzana carolina):                                         C         C         C
   *American coot (Fulica americana):                                Ab        Ab        Ab
   *Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis):                               (F)       (R)       (Ab)
   *Whooping crane (Grus americana):                                 R         E         R
    Black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola):                     U                   U
    American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica):                     F                   U
    Semipalmated plover (Charadrius semipalmatus):                   F                   F
   *Piping plover (Charadrius melodus):                             (U)       (U)       (U)
   *Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus):                                 C         C         C
   *Mountain plover (Charadrius montanus):                           E         E         E
    Black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus):                       O                   O
   *American avocet (Recurvirostra americana):                       C         C         C
 Subfamily Scolopacinae
    Greater yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca):                         F                   F
    Lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes):                             C                   C
    Solitary sandpiper (Tringa solitaria):                           U                   U
   *Willet (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus):                            F         F         U
   *Spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularia):                           U         U         U
   *Upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda):                         F         F         F
    Eskimo curlew (Numenius borealis):                               E                   E
    Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus):                                    O                   O
   *Long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus):                        R        (U)        R
    Hudsonian godwit (Limosa haemastica):                            F                   R
   *Marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa):                                   F         F         U
    Ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres):                            U                   R
    Red knot (Calidris canutus):                                     R                   R
    Sanderling (Calidris alba):                                      U                   U
    Semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla):                       Ab                  Ab
    Western sandpiper (Calidris mauri):                              O                   R
    Least sandpiper (Calidris minutilla):                            C                   C
    White-rumped sandpiper (Calidris fuscicollis):                   Ab                  R
    Baird's sandpiper (Calidris bairdii):                            C                   F
    Pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos):                         C                   F
    Dunlin (Calidris alpina):                                        U                   U
    Curlew sandpiper (Calidris feruginea):                           Ac
    Stilt sandpiper (Calidris himantopus):                           F                   C
    Buff-breasted sandpiper (Tryngites subruficollis):               R                   R
    Ruff (Philomachus pugnax):                                       Ac                  Ac
    Short-billed dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus):                    U                   U
    Long-billed dowitcher (Limnodromus scolopaceus):                 C                   C
   *Common snipe (Gallinago gallinago):                              C         U         C
   *American woodcock (Scolopax minor):                             (R)       (R)       (R)
 Subfamily Phalaropinae
   *Wilson's phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor):                        C         C         C
    Red-necked phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus):                       Ab                  Ab
    Red phalarope (Phalaropus fulicaria):                            O         O         O
 Subfamily Stercorarinae
    Parasitic jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus):                                         Ac
    Long-tailed jaeger (Stercorarius longicaudus):                             Ac        Ac
 Subfamily Larinae
   *Franklin's gull (Larus pipixcan):                                Ab       (C)        Ab
    Bonaparte's gull (Larus philadelphia):                           F                   F
   *Ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis):                           C        (C)        C         R
   *California gull (Larus californicus):                            F        (F)        F         O
    Herring gull (Larus argentatus):                                 F                   F        (U)
    Thayer's gull (Larus thayeri):                                   O                   O         O
    Glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus):                               R                  (U)       (R)
    Black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla):                                           O         O
    Sabine's gull (Xema sabini):                                                         O
 Subfamily Sterninae
   *Caspian tern (Sterna caspia):                                    O         O         O
   *Common tern (Sterna hirundo):                                    U        (F)        U
   *Forster's tern.(Sterna forsteri):                                U        (F)        U
   *Least tern (Sterna antillarum):                                 (R)       (R)       (R)
   *Black tern (Chlidonias niger):                                   C         C         Ab
   *Rock dove (Columba livia):                                       C         C         C         C
   *Mourning dove (Zenaida macroura):                                Ab        C         Ab        R
   *Passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius): EXTINCT
   *Black-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus erythropthalmus):                  F         F         U
   *Yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus):                      R         R         R
   *Barn owl (Tyto alba):                                            O         O         O
   *Eastern screech-owl (Otus asio):                                 U         U         U         U
   *Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus):                             F         F         F         F
    Snowy owl (Nyctea scandiaca):                                    R                   U         R
    Northern hawk owl (Surnia ulula):                                O                   O         O
   *Burrowing owl (Speotyto cunicularia):                            U        (F)        U
 (i)Barred owl (Strix varia):                                       (R)       (R)       (R)       (R)
    Great gray owl (Strix nebulosa):                                                     O         O
   *Long-eared owl (Asio otus):                                      R        (U)        R         R
   *Short-eared owl (Asio flammeus):                                 F         F         F         U
    Boreal owl (Aegolius funereus):                                                      O         O
 (i)Northern saw-whet owl (Aegolius acadicus):                       R        (O)        R         R
 Subfamily Chordelinae
   *Common nighthawk (Chordeiles minor):                             C         U         C
 Subfamily Caprimulginae
 (i)Common poorwill (Phalaenoptilus nuttallii):                     (U)       (F)       (R)
 (i)Whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus vociferus):                          R         R
   *Chimney swift (Chaetura pelagica):                              (C)       (F)       (F)
   *Ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris):                U        (F)        F
   *Belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon):                               F         F         F         R
    Lewis' woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis):                            Ac                  Ac
   *Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus):             (F)       (F)       (F)
   *Red-bellied woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus):                   R         O         R         R
   *Yellow-bellied sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius):                   U        (F)        U
   *Downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens):                           F         F         F         F
   *Hairy woodpecker (Picoides villosus):                            F         F         F         F
    Black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus):                                         O         O
   *Northern flicker (Colaptes auratus):                             C         C         C         R
   *Pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus):                       (U)       (U)       (U)       (U)
 Subfamily Fluvicolinae
    Olive-sided flycatcher (Contopus borealis):                      U                   U
 (i)Western wood-pewee (Contopus sordidulus):                       (U)       (U)       (U)
   *Eastern wood-pewee (Contopus virens):                           (C)       (C)       (C)
    Yellow-bellied flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris):              U                   U
   *Alder flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum):                            R        (R)        R
   *Willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii):                          F         F         F
   *Least flycatcher (Empidonax minimus):                            C         C         C
   *Eastern phoebe (Sayornis phoebe):                               (U)       (U)       (U)
   *Say's phoebe (Sayornis saya):                                   (U)       (U)       (U)
 Subfamily Tyranninae
   *Great crested flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus):                  (F)       (F)       (F)
   *Western kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis):                          C         C         Ab
   *Eastern kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus):                            C         C         Ab
    Scissor-tailed flycatcher (Tyrannus forficatus):                 Ac                  Ac
   *Horned lark (Eremophila alpestris):                              Ab        Ab        Ab        U
   *Purple martin (Progne subis):                                    F         F         F
   *Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor):                              C         F         F
 (i)Violet-green swallow (Tachycineta thalassina):                   R         O         R
   *Northern rough-winged swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis):      F         F         F
   *Bank swallow (Riparia riparia):                                  C         C         Ab
   *Cliff swallow (Hirundo pyrrhonota):                              Ab        Ab        Ab
   *Barn swallow (Hirundo rustica):                                  Ab        Ab        Ab
    Gray jay (Perisoreus canadensis):                                                    O         O
   *Blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata):                                  F         F         F         U
    Pinyon jay (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus):                                              Ac        Ac
    Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana):                       O                  (O)       (O)
   *Black-billed magpie (Pica pica):                                (F)       (C)       (C)        F
   *American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos):                           C         F         C         R
   *Common raven (Corvus corax):                                     O         E                  (R)
   *Black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus):                     F         F         F         F
    Boreal chickadee (Parus hudsonicus):                                                 Ac
   *Red-breasted nuthatch (Sitta canadensis):                        U         O         U         R
   *White-breasted nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis):                    F         F         F         F
 (i)Brown creeper (Certhia americana):                               F         O         F         R
   *Rock wren (Salpinctes obsoletus):                               (U)       (F)       (U)
   *House wren (Troglodytes aedon):                                  C         C         F
    Winter wren (Troglodytes troglodytes):                          (R)                 (R)        Ac
   *Sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis):                              U         F         U
   *Marsh wren (Cistothorus palustris):                              F         C         F
 Subfamily Sylviinae
    Golden-crowned kinglet (Regulus satrapa):                        F                   F         R
    Ruby-crowned kinglet (Regulus calendula):                        F         R         F
    Blue-gray gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea):                     Ac                  Ac
 Subfamily Turdinae
   *Eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis):                                F        (F)        U
   *Mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides):                          F        (F)        U
    Townsend's solitaire (Myadestes townsendi):                     (U)                 (U)       (U)
   *Veery (Catharus fuscescens):                                     U         C         U
    Gray-cheeked thrush (Catharus minimus):                          F                   F
 (i)Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus):                          C         O         C
    Hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus):                               U                   U         O
   *Wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina):                             (R)       (R)       (R)
   *American robin (Turdus migratorius):                             Ab        C         Ab        R
    Varied thrush (Ixoreus naevius):                                 O                             O
   *Gray catbird (Dumetella carolinensis):                           C         F         C
   *Northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos):                        R         R         R
 (i)Sage thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus):                           (O)       (O)
   *Brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum):                                F         F         F
    American pipit (Anthus rubescens):                               F                   F
   *Sprague's pipit (Anthus spragueii):                              U         F         F
    Bohemian waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus):                          U                   U         F
   *Cedar waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum):                             F         F         F         U
    Northern shrike (Lanius excubitor):                              R                   U         U
   *Loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus):                         U         F         U
   *European starling (Sturnus vulgaris):                            F         F         F         F
    White-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus):                                Ac
   *Bell's vireo (Vireo bellii):                                    (R)       (R)
 (i)Solitary vireo (Vireo solitarius):                               U        (R)        U
   *Yellow-throated vireo (Vireo flavifrons):                        U        (F)        U
   *Warbling vireo (Vireo gilvus):                                   F         C         F
   *Philadelphia vireo (Vireo philadelphicus):                       U        (U)        U
   *Red-eyed vireo (Vireo olivaceus):                                C         C         C
 Subfamily Parulinae
    Blue-winged warbler (Vermivora pinus):                           Ac
   *Golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera):                   R        (R)        R
 (i)Tennessee warbler (Vermivora peregrina):                         Ab        O         C
 (i)Orange-crowned warbler (Vermivora celata):                       C        (R)        C
    Nashville warbler (Vermivora ruficapilla):                       U                   U
 (i)Northern parula (Parula americana):                              R         O         R
   *Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia):                             C         C         C
   *Chestnut-sided warbler (Dendroica pensylvanica):                 F        (R)        F
    Magnolia warbler (Dendroica magnolia):                           U                   U
    Cape May warbler (Dendroica tigrina):                            R                   O
    Black-throated blue warbler (Dendroica caerulescens):           (R)                 (R)
   *Yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata):                      Ab       (U)        Ab
    Townsend's warbler (Dendroica townsendi):                                            Ac
    Black-throated green warbler (Dendroica virens):                 U                   U
    Blackburnian warbler (Dendroica fusca):                          U                   U
    Pine warbler (Dendroica pinus):                                  O                   O
    Palm warbler (Dendroica palmarum):                               F                   F
    Bay-breasted warbler (Dendroica castanea):                       U                   U
    Blackpoll warbler (Dendroica striata):                           C                   F         
 (i)Cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea):                           (O)                 (O)
   *Black-and-white warbler (Mniotilta varia):                       F         F         F
   *American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla):                         C        (C)        C
    Prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea):                      Ac
    Worm-eating warbler (Helmitheros vermivorus):                    Ac
   *Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus):                                 F        (F)        F
   *Northern waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis):                   F        (F)        F
    Louisiana waterthrush (Seiurus motacilla):                       Ac
    Connecticut warbler (Oporornis agilis):                          R                   R
   *Mourning warbler (Oporornis philadelphia):                       F        (F)        F
    MacGillivary's warbler (Oporornis tolmiei):                      O                   O
   *Common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas):                        C         C         C
    Hooded warbler (Wilsonia citrina):                               Ac
    Wilson's warbler ( Wilsonia pusilla):                            F                   C
 (i)Canada warbler (Wilsonia canadensis):                            U         O         U
   *Yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens):                          (F)       (F)       (F)
 Subfamily Thraupinae
    Summer tanager (Piranga rubra):                                  Ac        Ac
   *Scarlet tanager (Piranga olivacea):                              F         F         F
 (i)Western tanager (Piranga ludoviciana):                           R         R
 Subfamily Cardinalinae
   *Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis):                       R        (R)        R         O
   *Rose-breasted grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus):               (C)       (C)       (C)
   *Black-headed grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus):              (F)       (F)       (F)
   *Blue grosbeak (Guiraca caerulea):                                O         O         O
   *Lazuli bunting (Passerina amoena):                              (C)       (C)       (C)
   *Indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea):                              (F)       (F)       (F)
   *Dickcissel (Spiza americana):                                    U         F         U
 Subfamily Emberizinae
    Green-tailed towhee (Pipilo chlorurus):                          Ac
   *Rufous-sided towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus):                  (F)       (C)       (U)        O
    American tree sparrow (Spizella arborea):                        C                   C         U
   *Chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina):                           F         F         F
   *Clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida):                         C         Ab        C
   *Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri):                            (U)       (C)       (U)
   *Field sparrow (Spizella pusilla):                               (U)       (F)       (U)
   *Vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus):                            F        (C)        F         O
   *Lark sparrow (Chondestes grammacus):                             F        (F)        F
   *Lark bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys):                         (Ab)      (Ab)      (Ab)
   *Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis):                    Ab        C         Ab
   *Baird's sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii):                            F         F         F
   *Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum):                     C         C         C
    Henslow's sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii):                                  O         Ac
   *Le Conte's sparrow (Ammodramus leconteii):                       U         F         U
   *Sharp-tailed sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus):                    U         F         U
    Fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca):                                (U)                 (U)        Ac
   *Song sparrow (Melospiza melodia):                                C         C         C         O
    Lincoln's sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii):                         C                   C
   *Swamp sparrow (Melospiza georgiana):                             U        (U)        U
   *White-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis):                 C        (U)        C         R
    Golden-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla):                Ac
    White-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys):                  C                   C         R
    Harris' sparrow (Zonotrichia querula):                           C                   C         R
    Dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis):                                Ab        O         Ab       (R)
   *McCown's longspur (Calcarius mccownii):                         (U)       (U)       (U)
    Lapland longspur (Calcarius lapponicus):                         Ab                  Ab        U
    Smith's longspur (Calcarius pictus):                             R                   R
   *Chestnut-collared longspur (Calcarius ornatus):                  C        (Ab)       C
    Snow bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis):                            F                   C         F
 Subfamily Icterinae
   *Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus):                                F         F         F
   *Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus):                      Ab        Ab        Ab        R
    Eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna):                            Ac        Ac
   *Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta):                         Ab        Ab        Ab        R
   *Yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus):         Ab        Ab        Ab        R
    Rusty blackbird (Euphagus carolinus):                            F                   F         R
   *Brewer's blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus):                     C         F         C         O
   *Common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula):                             Ab        Ab        Ab        R
   *Brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater):                           C         C         U
   *Orchard oriole (Icterus spurius):                                F         F         R
   *Northern oriole (Icterus galbula):                               F         F         F
 Subfamily Fringillinae
    Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla):                                                          Ac
 Subfamily Carduelinae
    Grey-crowned rosy-finch (Leucosticte tephrocotis):                                             R
    Pine grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator):                             U                   U         U
   *Purple finch (Carpodacus purpureus):                             U        (R)        U         R
    House finch (Carpodacus mexicanus):                                                            Ac
   *Red crossbill (Loxia curvirostra):                               U         R         U         U
 (i)White-winged crossbill (Loxia leucoptera):                       R         O         R         U
    Common redpoll (Carduelis flammea):                              F         C         U
    Hoary redpoll (Carduelis hornemanni):                            R                   R
   *Pine siskin (Carduelis pinus):                                   F         R         F         U
   *Lesser goldfinch (Carduelis psaltria):                                     Ac
   *American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis):                          F         F         F         U
    Evening grosbeak (Coccothraustes vespertinus):                   U                   U         U
   *House sparrow (Passer domesticus):                               C         C         C         C

Hypothetical Species:

   Arctic loon (Gavia arctica)
   Northern gannet (Morus bassanus)
   Black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis)
   Common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus)
   Laughing gull (Larus atricilla)
   Iceland gull (Larus glaucoides)
   Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea)
   Band-tailed pigeon (Columba fasciata)
   Vermilion flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus)
   Western bluebird (Sialia mexicana)
   Black-throated gray warbler (Dendroica nigrescens)
   Kentucky warbler (Oporornis formosus)

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