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Bird Checklists of the United States

National Elk Refuge

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Jackson, Wyoming



RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE

a - ABUNDANT -- likely to be seen in large numbers in appropriate habitat and season.
c - COMMON -- may be observed most of the time and in good numbers in appropriate habitat and season.
o - OCCASIONAL -- occurs irregularly or in small numbers, but in appropriate habitat and season.
r - RARE -- unexpected as to season or range.
x - ACCIDENTAL or SURPRISING -- out of its range, or recorded only once or twice.
? - VERIFICATION UNAVAILABLE -- additional information especially welcome!

SEASONS

SP - March-May
SU - June-August
F - September-November
W - December-February

BREEDING STATUS

* - following species' name indicates nest or dependent young have been observed.
^ - following species' name indicates only circumstantial evidence of breeding.


LOONS SP SU F W ___ Common Loon* o o o x
GREBES SP SU F W ___ Pied-billed Grebe* o o o r ___ Horned Grebe r r o - ___ Eared Grebe^ c o o - ___ Western Grebe* o o o -
PELICANS SP SU F W ___ American White Pelican c c c -
CORMORANTS SP SU F W ___ Double-crested Cormorant* c c c -
BITTERNS AND HERONS SP SU F W ___ American Bittern* o o o - ___ Great Blue Heron* c c c o ___ Great Egret(Common or American Egret) x - - - ___ Green Heron x - - - ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron x - x -
IBISES SP SU F W ___ White-faced Ibis o - - -
WATERFOWL SP SU F W ___ Tundra Swan (Whistling Swan) o - o o ___ Trumpeter Swan* c c c c ___ Greater White-fronted Goose - - x - ___ Snow Goose o - o r ___ Ross' Goose - - - x ___ Canada Goose* c c c c ___ Wood Duck r r r r ___ Green-winged Teal* c c c o ___ Mallard* a c a c ___ Northern Pintail* o o c c ___ Blue-winged Teal c o c r ___ Cinnamon Teal* o o r x ___ Northern Shoveler* o r o o ___ Gadwall* c o c o ___ Eurasian Wigeon (European Wigeon) x x - - ___ American Wigeon* c c c r ___ Canvasback* o r o - ___ Redhead^ o o c - ___ Ring-necked Duck* o c c r ___ Greater Scaup - x - - ___ Lesser Scaup* o o o - ___ Harlequin Duck* o o o - ___ Common Goldeneye* o o o o ___ Barrow's Goldeneye* c c c o ___ Bufflehead* c o c o ___ Hooded Merganser r - r o ___ Common Merganser* c c c c ___ Red-breasted Merganser o - o ? ___ Ruddy Duck* o o o x
VULTURES, HAWKS AND FALCONS SP SU F W ___ Turkey Vulture r r r - ___ Osprey* c c c - ___ Black-shouldered Kite (White-tailed Kite) - - x - ___ Bald Eagle* c c c c ___ Northern Harrier* (Marsh Hawk) o o o r ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk* o o o x ___ Cooper's Hawk* o o o x ___ Goshawk* c c c o ___ Broad-winged Hawk x - ? - ___ Swainson's Hawk* c c c - ___ Red-tailed Hawk* c c c r ___ Ferruginous Hawk* r r r - ___ Rough-legged Hawk o - c o ___ Golden Eagle* o o o o ___ American Kestrel* c c c r ___ Merlin^ o r o x ___ Peregrine Falcon* r r r r ___ Gryfalcon x - x x ___ Prairie Falcon* o o o x
GALLINACEOUS BIRDS SP SU F W ___ Chukar* r r r r ___ Blue Grouse* c c c c ___ Ruffed Grouse* c c c c ___ Sage Grouse* c c c c ___ Sharp-tailed Grouse - r r x
RAILS AND COOTS SP SU F W ___ Virginia Rail - x x - ___ Sora* c c c - ___ American Coot* o o c r
CRANES SP SU F W ___ Sandhill Crane* c o c - ___ Whooping Crane r r r -
PLOVERS SP SU F W ___ Black-bellied Plover ? - ? - ___ Lesser Golden-Plover(American Golden Plover)? - - - ___ Semipalmated Plover r - r - ___ Killdeer* o c c o ___ Mountain Plover - x - - ___ Black-necked Stilt x x x - ___ American Avocet* o o o - ___ Greater Yellowlegs o o o - ___ Lesser Yellowlegs o o o - ___ Solitary Sandpiper o r o - ___ Willet* o r o - ___ Spotted Sandpiper* c c c - ___ Upland Sandpiper - x - - ___ Long-billed Curlew* o o o - ___ Marbled Godwit o r r - ___ Whimbrel x - - - ___ Sanderling x r x - ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper - r o - ___ Western Sandpiper x r o - ___ Least Sandpiper o r o - ___ Baird's Sandpiper r o o - ___ Pectoral Sandpiper - - r - ___ Stilt Sandpiper r - - - ___ Long-billed Dowitcher o o o - ___ Common Snipe* c c c -
PHALAROPES SP SU F W ___ Wilson's Phalarope* - c o r ___ Red-necked Phalarope (Northern Phalarope) r - r - ___ Red Phalarope - x - -
GULLS AND TERNS SP SU F W ___ Franklin's Gull o o o - ___ Bonaparte's Gull o - r - ___ Ring-billed Gull r o r - ___ California Gull c c c - ___ Western Gull - - ? - ___ Sabine's Gull - - x - ___ Caspian Tern r o o - ___ Common Tern - r r - ___ Forster's Tern r r r - ___ Black Tern o o o - ___ Ancient Murrelet - - x -
DOVES AND CUCKOOS SP SU F W ___ Rock Dove^ o o o o ___ Band-tailed Pigeon x x ? ? ___ Mourning Dove* o o o x ___ Black-billed Cuckoo r r r - ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo - x x -
OWLS SP SU F W ___ Barn Owl - - x - ___ Flammulated Owl - - x - ___ Western Screech-Owl^ r r r r ___ Great Horned Owl* c c c c ___ Snowy Owl - - x x ___ Northern Hawk Owl - ? - - ___ Northern Pygmy-Owl^ o o o r ___ Burrowing Owl* r r r - ___ Barred Owl - - x - ___ Great Gray Owl* o o o o ___ Long-eared Owl* x o o x ___ Short-eared Owl* r o o r ___ Boreal Owl* o o o r ___ Northern Saw-whet Owl* o o o r
NIGHTHAWKS SP SU F W ___ Common Nighthawk* c c c - ___ Common Poorwill* x - - -
SWIFTS AND HUMMINGBIRDS SP SU F W ___ Vaux's Swift - - ? - ___ Black Swift - ? - - ___ White-throated Swift - x - - ___ Magnificent Hummingbird (Rivoli's Humm.) - x - - ___ Black-chinned Hummingbird - o r - ___ Calliope Hummingbird* c c c - ___ Broad-tailed Hummingbird* c c o - ___ Rufous Hummingbird* o o o -
KINGFISHERS SP SU F W ___ Belted Kingfisher* c c c c
WOODPECKERS SP SU F W ___ Lewis' Woodpecker* o o r - ___ Red-headed Woodpecker x x - - ___ Red-naped Sapsucker (formerly ssp. of Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) c c c x ___ Williamson's Sapsucker* o o r - ___ Downy Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Hairy Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Three-toed Woodpecker* (Northern Three- toed Woodpecker) o o r r ___ Northern Flicker* (Common, Red-, and Yellow-shafted Flicker) c c c o ___ Pileated Woodpecker - ? - -
FLYCATCHERS SP SU F W ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher* c c c - ___ Western Wood-Pewee* c c c - ___ Willow Flycatcher* o o o - ___ Least Flycatcher - o - - ___ Hammond's Flycatcher o o o - ___ Dusky Flycatcher* c c c - ___ Cordilleran Flycatcher^ (Western Fly.) o o o - ___ Say's Phoebe r r r - ___ Vermilion Flycatcher - x - - ___ Great Crested Flycatcher - - x - ___ Western Kingbird r r r - ___ Eastern Kingbird o o o -
LARKS SP SU F W ___ Horned Lark^ o o o o
SWALLOWS SP SU F W ___ Tree Swallow* a a a - ___ Violet-green Swallow* c c c - ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow* o o o - ___ Bank Swallow* c c c - ___ Cliff Swallow* a a c - ___ Barn Swallow* c c c -
JAYS, MAGPIES AND CROWS SP SU F W ___ Gray Jay* c c c c ___ Steller's Jay* c c c c ___ Blue Jay x - - x ___ Pinyon Jay - x x x ___ Clark's Nutcracker* c c c c ___ Black-billed Magpie* c c c c ___ American Crow* o o o o ___ Common Raven* c c c c
CHICKADEES SP SU F W ___ Black-capped Chickadee* c c c c ___ Mountain Chickadee* c c c c ___ Plain Titmouse - ? - -
NUTHATCHES SP SU F W ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch* c c c c ___ White-breasted Nuthatch* c c c c ___ Pygmy Nuthatch - - x -
CREEPERS SP SU F W ___ Brown Creeper* o o o o
WRENS SP SU F W ___ Rock Wren* o o o o ___ House Wren* c c c - ___ Winter Wren^ x r ? - ___ Marsh Wren* c c c - ___ Canyon Wren - x x -
DIPPERS SP SU F W ___ American Dipper* c c c c
KINGLETS AND GNATCATCHERS SP SU F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet^ o o o r ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet* c c o r ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher x - x -
THRUSHES SP SU F W ___ Western Bluebird o r o - ___ Mountain Bluebird* c c c - ___ Townsend's Solitaire* c c o o ___ Veery^ o o o - ___ Swainson's Thrush* c c o - ___ Hermit Thrush* c c o - ___ American Robin* a a a r ___ Varied Thrush x x x -
MOCKINGBIRDS AND THRASHERS SP SU F W ___ Gray Catbird^ o o r - ___ Northern Mockingbird - x x - ___ Sage Thrasher* o o o - ___ Brown Thrasher - x - -
PIPITS SP SU F W ___ American Pipit^ (Water Pipit) c c c ?
WAXWINGS SP SU F W ___ Bohemian Waxwing o - r o ___ Cedar Waxwing o o o o
SHRIKES SP SU F W ___ Northern Shrike o - o o ___ Loggerhead Shrike^ o r r o
STARLINGS SP SU F W ___ European Starling* c c c o
VIREOS SP SU F W ___ Solitary Vireo - r r - ___ Warbling Vireo* a a o - ___ Red-eyed Vireo r - r -
WARBLERS SP SU F W ___ Tennessee Warbler x r x - ___ Orange-crowned Warbler^ o o o - ___ Nashville Warbler x - x - ___ Yellow Warbler* a a c - ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler x x - - ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler - - x - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler* a a c - ___ Townsend's Warbler - r r - ___ American Redstart* o o - - ___ MacGillivray's Warbler* c c o - ___ Common Yellowthroat* c c c - ___ Wilson's Warbler* c c c - ___ Painted Redstart ? - - - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat x x x -
TANAGERS SP SU F W ___ Western Tanager* c c o - ___ Scarlet Tanager x - - -
GROSBEAKS, BUNTINGS, SPARROWS, BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES AND FINCHES SP SU F W ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak o x - - ___ Black-headed Grosbeak* o c o - ___ Lazuli Bunting* o o r - ___ Indigo Bunting x x - - ___ Green-tailed Towhee* o c c - ___ Rufous-sided Towhee r r r - ___ Canyon Towhee (Brown) - x ? - ___ American Tree Sparrow o - o o ___ Chipping Sparrow* c c c ? ___ Clay-colored Sparrow* - r - - ___ Brewer's Sparrow* c c c - ___ Dickcissel - x - - ___ Vesper Sparrow c c c - ___ Lark Sparrow o o o - ___ Black-throated Sparrow x - - - ___ Sage Sparrow x x - - ___ Lark Bunting r r - - ___ Savannah Sparrow^ c c c - ___ Grasshopper Sparrow - x - - ___ Fox Sparrow* o o - - ___ Song Sparrow* c c c o ___ Lincoln's Sparrow* o c c - ___ Swamp Sparrow - ? ? - ___ White-throated Sparrow r - r - ___ White-crowned Sparrow* a a a r ___ Harris' Sparrow r - r r ___ Dark-eyed Junco* (White-winged, Slate- colored, Oregon and Gray-headed Junco) a a c o ___ McCown's Longspur - x - - ___ Lapland Longspur x - - x ___ Snow Bunting x - r o ___ Bobolink* o o - - ___ Red-winged Blackbird* c c c o ___ Western Meadowlark^ o o o x ___ Yellow-headed Blackbird* c c c x ___ Rusty Blackbird - - x - ___ Brewer's Blackbird* c c a o ___ Common Grackle* c c c - ___ Brown-headed Cowbird* c c c - ___ Orchard Oriole* x - - - ___ Northern Oriole* (Bullock's Oriole) o o o - ___ Rosy Finch* (Gray-crowned, Black Rosy Finch) c c o o ___ Pine Grosbeak^ o o o o ___ Purple Finch - - - ? ___ Cassin's Finch* c c c o ___ House Finch x x x x ___ Red Crossbill* o o o o ___ White-winged Crossbill* x x - x ___ Common Redpoll c - o o ___ Hoary Redpoll x - - x ___ Pine Siskin* c c c o ___ American Goldfinch* o o o x ___ Evening Grosbeak* c o c c ___ House Sparrow* c c c c

Please don't forget...Your observations will play an important role in keeping this checklist up-to-date. Thank you!
                 Refuge Manager
                 National Elk Refuge
                 675 E. Broadway, Box C
                 Jackson, WY 83001
                 Telephone: 307/733-9212
This checklist was compiled by Bert and Meg Raynes.

This resource should be cited as:

Raynes, Bert, and Meg Raynes.  No Date.  National Elk Refuge Bird Checklist.  
     Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.  
     http://www.npwrc.usgs.govelkref.htm 
     (Version 30DEC2002).

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