Bird Checklists of the United States

Presquile National Wildlife Refuge

small state map showing location

Prince George, Virginia

Presquile National Wildlife Refuge, established in 1953, is in the historic James River located near the City of Hopewell, Virginia. Originally a peninsula, the land was almost encircled by water when the river formed a long oxbow bend. Presquile became a true island in 1934 when a navigation channel was cut across the narrow base of the peninsula. In 1954, the portion of the James River that surrounds the refuge was closed to migratory bird hunting by Secretarial order, thus increasing the effectiveness of Presquile as a refuge.

Three distinct habitats are found on the island. There are more than 800 acres of tidal swamp, 250 acres of tidal marsh, and 275 acres of agricultural land. The refuge is managed primarily for waterfowl. Bird life is of most interest in winter when there are large concentrations of waterfowl including a Canada geese population sometimes exceeding 10,000 birds. As many as 200 snow geese and 1000 ducks may be seen. Ducks are mainly puddle ducks, although several kinds of diving ducks regularly use the refuge in small numbers. There are usually about 50 pairs of wood ducks, and occasionally black ducks nest in the refuge swamp and marsh. A variety of raptors can be seen, including bald eagles.

Transportation to and from Presquile National Wildlife Refuge is by a Government-owned and operated ferry. Refuge visitors are required to make advance reservations by contacting the Refuge Manager.

This folder lists 196 birds that have been identified on the Refuge, and is in accordance with the Sixth American Ornithologists Union Checklist.

Most birds are migratory, therefore their seasonal occurrence is coded as follows:

s - Spring - March to May
S - Summer - June to August
F - Fall - September to November
W - Winter - December to February

Relative Abundance
a - abundant: a species which is very numerous
c - common: likely to be seen or heard in suitable habitat
u - uncommon: present, but not certain to be seen
o - occasional: seen only a few times during a season
r - rare: may be present but not every year

LOONS, GREBES s S F W ___ Common Loon o - o u ___ Pied-billed Grebe c - u c ___ Horned Grebe o - o u
CORMORANTS s S F W ___ Double-crested Cormorant r - r u
BITTERNS, HERONS s S F W ___ American Bittern u o u c ___ Great Blue Heron c c c c ___ Great Egret c c c c ___ Snowy Egret o u o - ___ Little Blue Heron r c r - ___ Cattle Egret u r u - ___ Green Heron u c u - ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron o o o -
SWANS, GEESE, DUCKS s S F W ___ Tundra Swan r - r r ___ Snow Goose u - c c ___ Canada Goose a o a a ___ Wood Duck c c a a ___ Green-winged Teal c - c c ___ American Black Duck c c a a ___ Mallard c u a a ___ Northern Pintail r - r r ___ Blue-winged Teal u - c r ___ Northern Shoveler u - u u ___ Gadwall u - u u ___ American Wigeon c - u c ___ Canvasback r - r o ___ Redhead r - - o ___ Ring-necked Duck u - u u ___ Greater Scaup u - - u ___ Lesser Scaup u - u u ___ Common Goldeneye o - o o ___ Bufflehead u - u u ___ Hooded Merganser o - u u ___ Common Merganser c - u c ___ Red-breasted Merganser c - u r ___ Ruddy Duck c - c c
VULTURES, HAWKS, FALCONS s S F W ___ Black Vulture c c c c ___ Turkey Vulture a a a a ___ Osprey c c u r ___ Bald Eagle c c c c ___ Northern Harrier u - u c ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk u - u u ___ Cooper's Hawk o - o o ___ Red-shouldered Hawk c c c c ___ Broad-winged Hawk u - u - ___ Red-tailed Hawk c c c c ___ American Kestrel u - u c ___ Peregrine Falcon r - r -
QUAIL, TURKEY s S F W ___ Wild Turkey c c c c ___ Northern Bobwhite c c c c
RAILS, CRANES s S F W ___ King Rail u u u - ___ Virginia Rail u - u - ___ Sora - u c - ___ American Coot u r u u
PLOVERS, SANDPIPERS s S F W ___ Semipalmated Plover u - u - ___ Killdeer c c c c ___ Greater Yellowlegs c c c - ___ Lesser Yellowlegs c c c - ___ Solitary Sandpiper c - c - ___ Spotted Sandpiper c u c - ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper u u u - ___ Western Sandpiper - - r r ___ Least Sandpiper u u u - ___ Common Snipe u - u c ___ American Woodcock u u u u
GULLS, TERNS s S F W ___ Laughing Gull c c c - ___ Bonaparte's Gull u - u r ___ Ring-billed Gull c c c c ___ Herring Gull c c c c ___ Great Black-backed Gull o - u - ___ Caspian Tern o u o - ___ Royal Tern o - - - ___ Common Tern u u u - ___ Forster's Tern c c a - ___ Least Tern o o o - ___ Black Skimmer o o o -
DOVES, CUCKOOS, OWLS, SWIFTS, HUMMINGBIRDS s S F W ___ Mourning Dove a a a a ___ Black-billed Cuckoo c o c - ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo c c c - ___ Barn Owl u u u u ___ Eastern Screech-Owl u u u u ___ Great Horned Owl u u u u ___ Barred Owl c c c c ___ Short-eared Owl o - o u ___ Common Nighthawk o c o - ___ Chuck-will's-widow o c o - ___ Whip-poor-will u c o - ___ Chimney Swift u a u - ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird c c c - ___ Belted Kingfisher c c c c
WOODPECKERS, FLYCATCHERS s S F W ___ Red-headed Woodpecker u u u u ___ Red-bellied Woodpecker c c c c ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker u - u u ___ Downy Woodpecker c c c c ___ Hairy Woodpecker u u u u ___ Northern Flicker c c c c ___ Pileated Woodpecker c c c c ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee c c c - ___ Acadian Flycatcher c c c - ___ Eastern Phoebe c c c r ___ Great Crested Flycatcher c c c - ___ Eastern Kingbird c c c -
LARKS, SWALLOWS, JAYS, CROWS s S F W ___ Horned Lark u u u u ___ Tree Swallow c c a - ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow u u u - ___ Bank Swallow c c c - ___ Cliff Swallow o o - - ___ Barn Swallow a a a - ___ Blue Jay c c c c ___ American Crow a a a a ___ Fish Crow c a c r
TITMICE, NUTHATCHES, WRENS s S F W ___ Carolina Chickadee c c c c ___ Tufted Titmouse c c c c ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch o - o r ___ White-breasted Nuthatch u u u u ___ Brown Creeper c - c c ___ Carolina Wren c c c c ___ Bewick's Wren r - r r ___ House Wren c c c o ___ Winter Wren c - c c ___ Marsh Wren o o o -
KINGLETS, THRUSHES, THRASHERS s S F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet c - c c ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet c - c c ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher u c u - ___ Eastern Bluebird c c c c ___ Gray-cheeked Thrush u u u - ___ Swainson's Thrush u r u - ___ Hermit Thrush u - u u ___ Wood Thrush c c c - ___ American Robin c c c u ___ Gray Catbird c c c o ___ Northern Mockingbird a a a a ___ Brown Thrasher c c c c
WAXWINGS, SHRIKES, STARLING s S F W ___ American Pipit u - u c ___ Cedar Waxwing u - u c ___ Loggerhead Shrike c c c c ___ European Starling a a a a
VIREOS, WOOD WARBLERS s S F W ___ White-eyed Vireo c c c - ___ Yellow-throated Vireo u c u - ___ Red-eyed Vireo c a c - ___ Blue-winged Warbler r r r - ___ Orange-crowned Warbler - - r r ___ Northern Parula a a a - ___ Yellow Warbler u u u - ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler o r o - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler c - c c ___ Black-throated Green Warbler u o u - ___ Yellow-throated Warbler c c c - ___ Pine Warbler c c c r ___ Prairie Warbler c c c - ___ Palm Warbler o - - o ___ Blackpoll Warbler c o c - ___ Black-and-white Warbler c c c - ___ American Redstart c c c - ___ Prothonotary Warbler a a a - ___ Ovenbird c c c - ___ Louisiana Waterthrush c c c - ___ Kentucky Warbler c c u - ___ Common Yellowthroat a a a r ___ Hooded Warbler c c c - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat c c c -
TANAGERS, SPARROWS s S F W ___ Summer Tanager u c u - ___ Scarlet Tanager u u u - ___ Northern Cardinal a a a a ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak o - o - ___ Blue Grosbeak u u u - ___ Indigo Bunting c a c - ___ Dickcissel o - o - ___ Rufous-sided Towhee c c c c ___ Backman's Sparrow o o o - ___ American Tree Sparrow u - u u ___ Chipping Sparrow c c c - ___ Field Sparrow c c c c ___ Vesper Sparrow o o o - ___ Savannah Sparrow a - a r ___ Grasshopper Sparrow c c c - ___ Henslow's Sparrow r r r - ___ Fox Sparrow u - u u ___ Song Sparrow c c c c ___ Swamp Sparrow c - c c ___ White-throated Sparrow a - a a ___ White-crowned Sparrow u - u o ___ Dark-eyed Junco a - a a
BLACKBIRDS, FINCHES s S F W ___ Bobolink c o c - ___ Red-winged Blackbird a a a a ___ Eastern Meadowlark a a a a ___ Rusty Blackbird c - c r ___ Common Grackle a a a r ___ Brown-headed Cowbird c c c c ___ Orchard Oriole c c c r ___ Baltimore Oriole r r r - ___ Purple Finch u - u u ___ House Finch u - u u ___ Pine Siskin r - r o ___ American Goldfinch c c c r ___ Evening Grosbeak - - - o ___ House Sparrow a a a a

Date ___________________________________ Time _____________________________

Observers _____________________________________________________________________

Weather _______________________________________________________________________

Tides _________________________________________________________________________


For further information, contact:
                       Refuge Manager
                       Presquile National Wildlife Refuge
                       P.O. Box 189
                       Prince George, Virginia 23875-0189
                       Telephone: 804/733-8042


Presquile is one of more than 500 refuges in the National Wildlife Refuge System administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The National Wildlife Refuge System is a network of lands and waters managed specifically for the protection of wildlife and wildlife habitat and represents the most comprehensive wildlife resource management program in the world. Units of the system stretch across the United States from northern Alaska to the Florida Keys, and include small islands in the Caribbean and South Pacific. The character of the refuges is as diverse as the nation itself.

The Service also manages National Fish Hatcheries, and provides Federal leadership in habitat protection, fish and wildlife research, technical assistance and the conservation and protection of migratory birds, certain marine mammals and threatened and endangered species.

This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1993.  Birds of Presquile National Wildlife 
     Refuge, Chesterfield County, Virginia.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  
This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1993.  Birds of Presquile National Wildlife 
     Refuge, Chesterfield County, Virginia.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  
     Unpaginated.  Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.  
     (Version 22MAY98).

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