Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Common, Arctic, and endangered roseate terns, Atlantic puffins, razorbills, black guillemots, common eiders, and laughing gulls nest on refuge islands from mid-May to early August.
In May and June, the forests of the mainland are filled with the songs of hermit and Swainson's thrushes, song sparrows, and Nashville, magnolia, black-throated green, and palm warblers. Blackpoll warblers are passing through to their breeding grounds farther north.
Shorebird migration reaches its height in August, with red knots, semipalmated and least sandpipers, semipalmated and black-bellied plovers, and short-billed dowitchers, seen on the mud flats of the mainland divisions. Dunlins follow in September.
Bald eagles nest on some refuge islands. Merlins, peregrine falcons, and sharp-shinned hawks pass through the refuge in the fall.
Fall waterfowl migration occurs from late September into October. Cranberry Flowage, on Petit Manan Point, is filled with black ducks, green-winged teal, northern pintails, and mallards. Oldsquaw, common goldeneyes, and surf and white-winged scoters winter on coastal waters.
Where to See Birds
Seabird islands are closed to the public during the nesting season, April 1 - August 31, to minimize disturbance to the birds. Commercial tour boats provide views of nesting seabirds on Petit Manan and Machias Seal islands. Contact one of the refuge offices for more information.
The Petit Manan Point Division has two hiking trails that offer birding opportunities. The Hollingsworth Trail is a 1.5-mile loop, while the Birch Point Trail is a four-mile round trip. Both pass through blueberry fields and spruce-fir forests and along cobble beaches. The Birch Point Trail leads to a large saltmarsh. To reach Petit Manan Point, take Pigeon Hill Road off of U.S. Route 1 in Stueben.
How to Use This List
This brochure lists over 300 species that have been identified on the refuge. Of these, 113 have been confirmed to nest on or near the refuge, and 20 are accidental visitors. The list is in accordance with the seventh American Ornithologists' Union checklist.
Most birds are migratory; therefore, their seasonal occurrence is coded as follows:
|March - May
June - August
September - November
December - February
Relative abundance indicates how likely you are to see or hear a bird in its favored habitat.
|very likely to be seen or heard
likely to be seen or heard
present, but not likely to be seen or heard
seen or heard only a few times during a season
may not be seen or heard every year
out of normal range
* Birds known to nest on or near the refuge.
Italics indicate Federally threatened/endangered species.
LOONS Sp S F W ___ Red-throated Loon u - u r ___ Arctic Loon x - - - ___ Common Loon c u c c
GREBES Sp S F W ___ Pied-billed Grebe r - o - ___ Horned Grebe c - c c ___ Red-necked Grebe c o c c
SHEARWATERS Sp S F W ___ Greater Shearwater - r r - ___ Sooty Shearwater r r - - ___ Manx Shearwater - r - -
STORM PETRELS Sp S F W ___ Wilson's Storm-Petrel - o - - ___*Leach's Storm-Petrel u u u -
GANNETS Sp S F W ___ Northern Gannet o o o -
CORMORANTS Sp S F W ___*Double-crested Cormorant a a a r ___*Great Cormorant c o c o
BITTERNS, HERONS and EGRETS Sp S F W ___*American Bittern u u u - ___ Least Bittern r - - - ___*Great Blue Heron c u c o ___ Great Egret - - r - ___ Snowy Egret r r - - ___ Little Blue Heron r - - - ___ Tricolored Heron - r - - ___ Cattle Egret r - - - ___ Green Heron r r - - ___*Black-crowned Night-Heron r r r -
IBISES Sp S F W ___ Glossy Ibis r - - -
NEW WORLD VULTURES Sp S F W ___ Turkey Vulture r - r -
GEESE and DUCKS Sp S F W ___ Snow Goose o - - - ___ Canada Goose o r o o ___ Brant c - o - ___*Wood Duck u u u - ___ Gadwall r - r - ___ American Wigeon o r u - ___*American Black Duck c c a c ___*Mallard o o c r ___*Blue-winged Teal u u u - ___ Northern Shoveler r - - - ___ Northern Pintail o r u - ___*Green-winged Teal c c a - ___ Canvasback - - r - ___ Ring-necked Duck r - r - ___ Greater Scaup o - r - ___ Lesser Scaup r - r - ___ King Eider r r - - ___*Common Eider a a a a ___ Harlequin Duck u - r r ___ Surf Scoter c o c r ___ White-winged Scoter c u c u ___ Black Scoter a o u r ___ Oldsquaw c r a c ___ Bufflehead u - u u ___ Common Goldeneye c - c c ___ Barrow's Goldeneye u - r u ___*Hooded Merganser r r r - ___ Common Merganser o - - - ___ Red-breasted Merganser c u c c ___ Ruddy Duck - - o -
OSPREY, HAWKS and EAGLES Sp S F W ___*Osprey u u u - ___*Bald Eagle u u u u ___*Northern Harrier c c c o ___*Sharp-shinned Hawk u o a o ___ Cooper's Hawk o - o - ___*Northern Goshawk u u u u ___ Red-shouldered Hawk r r - - ___*Broad-winged Hawk o o u - ___ Red-tailed Hawk o o u r ___ Rough-legged Hawk o - o o ___ Golden Eagle r - - -
FALCONS Sp S F W ___ American Kestrel c - c - ___*Merlin o o c - ___ Gyrfalcon - - - r ___ Peregrine Falcon r o c -
GALLINACEOUS BIRDS Sp S F W ___ Ring-necked Pheasant r r r - ___*Ruffed Grouse c c c c ___*Spruce Grouse u u u u ___ Willow Ptarmigan x - - -
RAILS Sp S F W ___ King Rail - r - - ___ Virginia Rail r - - - ___ Sora - r r - ___ American Coot - - r -
PLOVERS Sp S F W ___ Black-bellied Plover c c c r ___ American Golden-Plover - o u - ___ Semipalmated Plover c a c - ___ Piping Plover r r - - ___*Killdeer u u u -
OYSTERCATCHERS Sp S F W ___*American Oystercatcher r r r -
SANPIPERS and PHALAROPES Sp S F W ___ Greater Yellowlegs c c c r ___ Lesser Yellowlegs o c c - ___ Solitary Sandpiper - o o - ___*Willet c c r - ___*Spotted Sandpiper u u u - ___ Upland Sandpiper r r - - ___ Whimbrel o u u - ___ Hudsonian Godwit - o o - ___ Bar-tailed Godwit - - x - ___ Marbled Godwit r - - - ___ Ruddy Turnstone c c c - ___ Red Knot u c u - ___ Sanderling o c c - ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper u a c - ___ Western Sandpiper r o o - ___ Least Sandpiper u c u - ___ White-rumped Sandpiper o c c - ___ Baird's Sandpiper - o o - ___ Pectoral Sandpiper o u u - ___ Purple Sandpiper c - u u ___ Dunlin o - c - ___ Curlew Sandpiper - r - - ___ Stilt Sandpiper - - r - ___ Buff-breasted Sandpiper - r r - ___ Ruff - x - - ___ Short-billed Dowitcher u c u - ___ Long-billed Dowitcher - r - - ___ Common Snipe o o u - ___*American Woodcock u u u - ___ Wilson's Phalarope r r - - ___ Red-necked Phalarope r r - -
JAEGERS, GULLS and TERNS Sp S F W ___ Pomarine Jaeger - r - - ___ Parasitic Jaeger r o - - ___*Laughing Gull c c c - ___ Franklin's Gull - - r - ___ Little Gull - - r - ___ Black-headed Gull r r r r ___ Bonaparte's Gull o c c o ___ Ring-billed Gull u u c u ___*Herring Gull a a a a ___ Iceland Gull u - u u ___ Lesser Black-backed Gull - r - r ___ Glaucous Gull r - r r ___*Great Black-backed Gull a a a a ___ Black-legged Kittiwake - o o o ___ Gull-billed Tern - x - - ___ Caspian Tern r - - - ___ Royal Tern - x - - ___ Sandwich Tern - x - - ___*Roseate Tern u u - - ___*Common Tern c c u - ___*Arctic Tern c c u - ___ Least Tern - r - - ___ Sooty Tern - x - - ___ Black Tern o o - - ___ Black Skimmer - x - -
AUKS and PUFFINS Sp S F W ___ Dovekie - r r r ___ Common Murre r r - - ___ Thick-billed Murre - - - r ___*Razorbill u u r - ___*Black Guillemot c c c u ___*Atlantic Puffin u u r -
PIGEONS and DOVES Sp S F W ___ Rock Dove - o o - ___*Mourning Dove c c c -
CUCKOOS Sp S F W ___*Black-billed Cuckoo o o o - ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo - - u -
BARN OWLS Sp S F W ___ Barn Owl x - - -
TYPICAL OWLS Sp S F W ___*Great Horned Owl o o o o ___ Snowy Owl r - r o ___ Northern Hawk Owl - - r r ___ Barred Owl r r r - ___ Short-eared Owl r - r r ___*Northern Saw-whet Owl r r r -
NIGHTJARS Sp S F W ___ Common Nighthawk r u o - ___ Chuck-will's-widow x - - - ___*Whip-poor-will u u u -
SWIFTS Sp S F W ___ Chimney Swift u o o -
HUMMINGBIRDS Sp S F W ___*Ruby-throated Hummingbird o o o -
KINGFISHERS Sp S F W ___*Belted Kingfisher u u u -
WOODPECKERS Sp S F W ___ Red-headed Woodpecker r - r - ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker r - u - ___*Downy Woodpecker c c c c ___*Hairy Woodpecker u u u u ___ Black-backed Woodpecker r - - r ___*Northern Flicker c c c - ___ Pileated Woodpecker o - o o
TYRANT FLYCATCHERS Sp S F W ___*Olive-sided Flycatcher o o o - ___*Eastern Wood-Pewee u u u - ___*Yellow-bellied Flycatcher u o u - ___*Alder Flycatcher c c c - ___*Willow Flycatcher r - - - ___*Least Flycatcher u u u - ___*Eastern Phoebe u u u - ___*Great Crested Flycatcher u u u - ___ Couch's Kingbird - - x - ___*Eastern Kingbird c u c - ___ Scissor-tailed Flycatcher - x x - ___ Fork-tailed Flycatcher x - - -
SHRIKES Sp S F W ___ Loggerhead Shrike - r - - ___ Northern Shrike o - o o
VIREOS Sp S F W ___ White-eyed Vireo - - r - ___ Yellow-throated Vireo r - r - ___*Blue-headed Vireo u u u - ___ Warbling Vireo o - o - ___ Philadelphia Vireo o o u - ___*Red-eyed Vireo c c c -
CROWS, JAYS and MAGPIES Sp S F W ___ Gray Jay o o o o ___*Blue Jay u u u r ___ Black-billed Magpie x - x - ___*American Crow c c c c ___*Common Raven u u u u
LARKS Sp S F W ___ Horned Lark r - c r
SWALLOWS Sp S F W ___ Purple Martin o - - - ___*Tree Swallow c c r - ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow o - - - ___*Bank Swallow u u r - ___*Cliff Swallow c u o - ___*Barn Swallow c c u -
CHICKADEES Sp S F W ___*Black-capped Chickadee c c c c ___*Boreal Chickadee o o o o
NUTHATCHES Sp S F W ___*Red-breasted Nuthatch c c c c ___ White-breasted Nuthatch r - r -
CREEPERS Sp S F W ___*Brown Creeper u o u o
WRENS Sp S F W ___ Carolina Wren - r - - ___ House Wren r - r - ___*Winter Wren u u u - ___ Marsh Wren - r - -
KINGLETS Sp S F W ___*Golden-crowned Kinglet c c c o ___*Ruby-crowned Kinglet c u c -
OLD WORLD WARBLERS Sp S F W ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher o o o -
THRUSHES Sp S F W ___ Northern Wheatear - - x - ___ Eastern Bluebird o o o - ___ Townsend's Solitaire - - x - ___ Veery u o o - ___ Gray-cheeked Thrush - - r - ___*Swainson's Thrush u u u - ___*Hermit Thrush c c c - ___ Wood Thrush o - o - ___*American Robin c c a u
MIMIC THRUSHES Sp S F W ___*Gray Catbird c c c - ___*Northern Mockingbird o o o - ___*Brown Thrasher o o o -
STARLINGS Sp S F W ___*European Starling u u u u
PIPITS Sp S F W ___ American Pipit r - u -
WAXWINGS Sp S F W ___ Bohemian Waxwing - - r - ___*Cedar Waxwing c c c r
WOOD WARBLERS Sp S F W ___ Blue-winged Warbler - r r - ___*Tennessee Warbler u o u - ___ Orange-crowned Warbler o - o - ___*Nashville Warbler c c c - ___*Northern Parula c c c - ___*Yellow Warbler c c c - ___*Chestnut-sided Warbler u u u - ___*Magnolia Warbler c c c - ___*Cape May Warbler r c c - ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler u o u - ___*Yellow-rumped Warbler c c c r ___*Black-throated Green Warbler c c c - ___*Blackburnian Warbler c c u - ___ Pine Warbler - o o - ___ Prairie Warbler r o o - ___*Palm Warbler c u c - ___*Bay-breasted Warbler o c c - ___*Blackpoll Warbler c o u - ___*Black-and-white Warbler c c c - ___*American Redstart c c c - ___ Worm-eating Warbler x - - - ___*Ovenbird u u u - ___*Northern Waterthrush o o r - ___ Kentucky Warbler r - - - ___*Mourning Warbler r r - - ___*Common Yellowthroat c c c - ___ Hooded Warbler - r - - ___*Wilson's Warbler u u u - ___*Canada Warbler u o o - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat r - o -
TANAGERS Sp S F W ___ Summer Tanager r - - - ___ Scarlet Tanager u u u - ___ Western Tanager - - x -
SPARROWS and TOWHEES Sp S F W ___*Eastern Towhee u u u - ___ American Tree Sparrow u - u u ___*Chipping Sparrow u u u - ___ Clay-colored Sparrow - r - - ___ Field Sparrow o - o - ___ Vesper Sparrow o - o - ___ Lark Sparrow - r r - ___*Savannah Sparrow c c c - ___ Grasshopper Sparrow - - r - ___ Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow - - u - ___*Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow r o u - ___ Seaside Sparrow - r r - ___ Fox Sparrow o - o - ___*Song Sparrow c c c r ___*Lincoln's Sparrow u u u - ___*Swamp Sparrow c c c - ___*White-throated Sparrow c c c - ___ White-crowned Sparrow o - o - ___*Dark-eyed Junco c u c r ___ Lapland Longspur - r o - ___ Snow Bunting - - c o
CARDINALS, GROSBEAKS, and ALLIES Sp S F W ___ Northern Cardinal o - o - ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak u u u - ___ Blue Grosbeak r - - - ___ Indigo Bunting r r r - ___ Dickcissel - - - r
BLACKBIRDS and ORIOLES Sp S F W ___*Bobolink u u u - ___*Red-winged Blackbird c c u - ___ Eastern Meadowlark o - o - ___ Western Meadowlark - x - - ___ Yellow-headed Blackbird - - r - ___ Rusty Blackbird o - o - ___ Brewer's Blackbird - r - - ___*Common Grackle c c u - ___*Brown-headed Cowbird u u u - ___ Orchard Oriole r - - - ___*Baltimore Oriole u o u -
FINCHES Sp S F W ___ Pine Grosbeak o - o u ___*Purple Finch u u u - ___ House Finch r - - - ___ Red Crossbill o o o o ___ White-winged Crossbill u u u u ___ Common Redpoll u - o c ___ Hoary Redpoll - - - r ___*Pine Siskin u u u u ___*American Goldfinch u u u u ___ Evening Grosbeak u - u -
Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge P.O. Box 279 (Water Street) Milbridge, ME 4658 207/546 2124 P.O. Box 495 (16 Rockport Park Centre Drive) Rockport, ME 04856 207/236 6970 Federal Relay Service for the deaf and hard-of-hearing 1 800/877 8339 U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov
U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. December 2000. Petit Manan, National Wildlife Refuge, Birds. U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Unpaginated.This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. December 2000. Petit Manan, National Wildlife Refuge, Birds. U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Unpaginated. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online. http://www.npwrc.usgs.govpetitman.htm (Version 10JUL2001)