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Bird Checklists of the United States

Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

small state map showing location

Newburyport, Massachusetts


A Refuge for Birds

Parker River National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1942 to provide feeding, resting, and nesting habitat for migratory birds. Located along the Atlantic Flyway on the Massachusetts coast, the Refuge is of special significance to waterfowl and shorebirds, including the federally threatened piping plover. Consisting of 4,662 acres (1,883 hectares) of diverse wetland and upland habitats, the Refuge also supports a great variety of mammals, reptiles, amphibians, insects and other wildlife.

Trails and Other Facilities Provide Excellent Viewing, Several Wheelchair Accessible

Parker River Refuge is accessible by motor vehicle and foot over mostly gentle terrain. Several miles of foot trails meander through dune, shrub/thicket, freshwater marsh, and other Refuge habitats. Observation towers and platforms afford commanding views of the Refuge and surrounding lands and waters. A 6.3 mile (10.1 kilometer) roadway runs the length of the Refuge and provides several pull-offs. For your safety, roadside parking is prohibited and the 25 mph (40 kmph) speed limit is strictly enforced.

Wheelchair accessible birding sites include the Salt Pannes Wildlife Observation Area, the North Pool Overlook, the 0.3 mile (0.5 kilometer) Pines Trail, and the observation platforms overlooking the beach and ocean at parking lots 1 and 7.

Birding Best in Spring, Summer, and Fall

Parker River Refuge is noted as one of the finest birding areas in the nation with more than 300 species recorded. While any season can produce a memorable visit, spring, summer, and fall offer the best birdwatching opportunities. Each season's highlights are described below.

Spring (March - May)

Piping plovers first return in March to nest on the ocean beach.1 Purple martins begin to arrive in mid-April and are most easily observed from parking lots 1 and 4 at provided compartment houses. Raptor migration is best in April and early May with prime viewing available in parking lot 1. Top single-day flights of American kestrel, sharp-shinned hawk, and other species consist of several hundred birds. Peak migratory bird diversity occurs during the latter half of May. At this time a day's tally may result in one hundred or more species. Major waves of passerines, especially warblers, vireos, thrushes, and flycatchers, are the main attraction. Hellcat Wildlife Observation Area and the Pines Trail are popular viewing sites.

Summer (June - August)

Good birding continues into early June with passerine migration still in progress. By early July, southbound shorebird migrants begin to arrive with numbers peaking in August. Viewing is normally best at the Salt Pannes Wildlife Observation Area at high tide and Stage Island, Bill Forward, and North Pools when water levels are low. Beginning in mid-August, large numbers of herons during some years congregate at Bill Forward Pool and other Refuge roost sites. In even greater concentrations, migrating tree swallows can be observed in marsh, beach, and other open habitats. Also at this time, warblers, vireos, and other fall passerine migrants become apparent.

Fall (September - November)

Passerine migration continues into early September and shorebird diversity is at its height. Peregrine falcons occur most regularly from mid-September through November. During October, sizeable numbers of yellow-rumped warblers can be found in Refuge thickets. In October and November, dabbling ducks dominate at the freshwater pools, complemented here and in deeper water areas by a diversity of divers. Mid-October through November is best for viewing northern gannets with strong onshore ocean winds most favorable.

Winter (December - February)

Emerson Rocks (parking lot 7) attracts wintering loons, grebes, and sea ducks including common eider, white-winged scoter, and oldsquaw. Also at this tidal area, purple sandpipers can sometimes be observed on exposed rocks. Two winter specialties are snowy owl and rough-legged hawk, found most commonly in Refuge grasslands and other open habitats. Northern shrike, another winter feature, is most frequently located in roadside trees and shrubs.

Please remain an unobtrusive observer by viewing birds and other wildlife from an appropriate distance and staying within designated public use areas.

Arrive Early to Avoid Disappointment

During the warmer months, the Refuge sometimes fills to capacity and is subsequently closed for several hours. Arriving early may help you avoid this inconvenience.

Checklist Provides Seasonal Probabilities of Seeing Individual Species

This checklist provides information on the likelihood of seeing individual bird species through the seasons. This likelihood is based on the species' observability and is dependent upon many factors including its size, color, behavior, habitat preference, habitat conditions, relative abundance, and frequency of occurrence.

Prepared in accordance with the Seventh Edition of "The American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds," this brochure lists 305 species which have been observed on or from the Plum Island section of Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. It also includes two separate lists of birds of extremely rare occurrence.


1Each year the Refuge beach is closed to all public entry April 1 to mid-late August to provide undisturbed nesting habitat for the piping plover. Sections of the beach not being used by nesting birds may be reopened beginning July 1.
Seasons

Sp     Spring      March - May
Su     Summer    June - August
F       Fall          September - November
W     Winter      December - February

Sighting Likelihood

5    very good to excellent
4    good to very good
3    fair to good
2    poor to fair
1    very poor to poor

The probability of seeing a bird may vary within a season. The value assigned to each bird in this checklist represents the highest value that generally occurs within that season.

For specific information on Massachusetts birds concerning such factors as seasonal abundance, habitat preference, and early and late seasonal dates, refer to "Birds of Massachusetts" by Richard R. Veit and Wayne R. Petersen, and the "Birds of Essex County Massachusetts - a Field List," published by the Essex County Ornithological Club of Massachusetts in association with Essex County Greenbelt Association and the Peabody Essex Museum.

Additional Symbols

*         represents a species known or suspected to nest on the Refuge
bold   indicates a federally listed threatened or endangered species


LOONS — GREBES Sp Su F W ___ Red-throated Loon 3 - 4 2 ___ Common Loon 4 2 4 4 ___*Pied-billed Grebe 2 2 2 1 ___ Horned Grebe 4 - 3 4 ___ Red-necked Grebe 2 - 2 2
SHEARWATERS — STORM-PETRELS Sp Su F W ___ Northern Fulmar 1 1 1 1 ___ Greater Shearwater 1 1 1 1 ___ Sooty Shearwater 1 1 1 - ___ Manx Shearwater 1 1 1 - ___ Wilson's Storm-Petrel 1 1 1 - ___ Leach's Storm-Petrel 1 1 1 -
GANNETS — PELICANS — CORMORANTS Sp Su F W ___ Northern Gannet 3 1 4 3 ___ Great Cormorant 2 - 2 2 ___ Double-crested Cormorant 5 5 5 2
BITTERNS — HERONS — IBISES Sp Su F W ___ American Bittern 2 - 2 2 ___*Least Bittern 2 2 1 - ___ Great Blue Heron 4 5 5 2 ___ Great Egret 5 5 5 - ___ Snowy Egret 5 5 5 - ___ Little Blue Heron 2 2 2 1 ___ Tricolored Heron 2 2 2 1 ___ Cattle Egret 1 1 1 - ___*Green Heron 3 3 2 - ___*Black-crowned Night-Heron 2 2 2 1 ___*Yellow-crowned Night-Heron 1 1 1 - ___ Glossy Ibis 3 3 2 1
SWANS — GEESE — DUCKS Sp Su F W ___ Tundra Swan 1 - 1 1 ___*Mute Swan 3 3 3 2 ___ Whopper Swan 3 3 3 2 ___ Snow Goose 2 1 3 3 ___ Brant 3 1 3 1 ___*Canada Goose 5 5 5 5 ___*Wood Duck 2 2 2 - ___*Green-winged Teal 5 3 5 2 ___*American Black Duck 5 4 5 5 ___*Mallard 4 4 4 4 ___*Northern Pintail 3 2 4 3 ___*Blue-winged Teal 2 4 3 - ___*Northern Shoveler 2 1 2 1 ___*Gadwall 3 3 3 2 ___ Eurasian Wigeon 1 1 1 1 ___ American Wigeon 2 2 3 2 ___ Canvasback 1 - 1 1 ___ Redhead 1 - 1 1 ___ Ring-necked Duck 2 1 2 1 ___ Greater Scaup 2 - 2 2 ___ Lesser Scaup 1 - 1 1 ___ Common Eider 4 2 4 4 ___ King Eider 1 - 1 1 ___ Harlequin Duck 1 - 1 1 ___ Long-tailed Duck 3 1 3 3 ___ Black Scoter 3 2 3 2 ___ Surf Scoter 3 2 3 2 ___ White-winged Scoter 4 2 4 4 ___ Common Goldeneye 4 - 3 4 ___ Barrow's Goldeneye 1 - - 1 ___ Bufflehead 4 - 4 4 ___ Hooded Merganser 2 1 2 2 ___ Common Merganser 2 - 2 2 ___ Red-breasted Merganser 3 2 3 3 ___*Ruddy Duck 1 1 2 1
VULTURES — HAWKS — FALCONS Sp Su F W ___ Turkey Vulture 2 1 2 1 ___*Osprey 3 3 3 - ___ Bald Eagle 1 1 1 1 ___ Northern Harrier 4 3 4 4 ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk 4 - 3 2 ___ Cooper's Hawk 2 1 2 1 ___ Northern Goshawk 1 - 1 1 ___ Red-shouldered Hawk 1 - 1 - ___ Broad-winged Hawk 1 - 1 - ___ Red-tailed Hawk 3 2 2 2 ___ Rough-legged Hawk 3 - 3 3 ___ Golden Eagle 1 1 1 1 ___*American Kestrel 4 3 3 3 ___ Merlin 3 1 3 1 ___ Peregrine Falcon 3 1 3 1 ___ Gyrfalcon 1 - 1 1
GROUSE — QUAIL — TURKEYS Sp Su F W ___*Ring-necked Pheasant 1 1 1 1 ___*Wild Turkey 1 1 1 1
RAILS — CRANES Sp Su F W ___*Clapper Rail 2 2 2 - ___*King Rail 2 2 2 - ___*Virginia Rail 2 2 2 - ___*Sora 2 2 2 - ___*Common Moorhen 1 1 2 1 ___*American Coot 1 1 2 2
PLOVERS — SANDPIPERS Sp Su F W ___ Black-bellied Plover 3 4 4 2 ___ American Golden-Plover 1 2 2 - ___ Semipalmated Plover 3 5 4 - ___*Piping Plover 2 2 1 - ___*Killdeer 4 4 3 1 ___ American Oystercatcher 1 1 - - ___ Black-necked Stilt 1 1 - - ___ American Avocet - 1 1 1 ___ Greater Yellowlegs 4 5 5 1 ___ Lesser Yellowlegs 4 5 5 - ___ Solitary Sandpiper 2 2 2 - ___*Willet 4 4 2 - ___*Spotted Sandpiper 3 3 3 - ___ Upland Sandpiper 2 2 2 - ___ Whimbrel 2 2 2 - ___ Hudsonian Godwit - 2 2 - ___ Marbled Godwit - 1 1 - ___ Ruddy Turnstone 2 3 2 1 ___ Red Knot 2 3 3 1 ___ Sanderling 3 4 4 3 ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper 4 5 5 - ___ Western Sandpiper - 2 2 - ___ Least Sandpiper 4 5 4 - ___ White-rumped Sandpiper 3 3 3 - ___ Baird's Sandpiper - 2 2 - ___ Pectoral Sandpiper 2 3 3 - ___ Purple Sandpiper 2 - 2 2 ___ Dunlin 2 1 4 3 ___ Stilt Sandpiper 1 3 3 - ___ Buff-breasted Sandpiper - 2 2 - ___ Ruff 1 1 1 - ___ Short-billed Dowitcher 3 4 3 - ___ Long-billed Dowitcher - 3 3 1 ___ Common Snipe 2 1 2 1 ___*American Woodcock 2 2 2 1 ___*Wilson's Phalarope 2 3 3 - ___ Red-necked Phalarope 1 2 2 - ___ Red Phalarope 1 1 1 -
JAEGERS — GULLS — TERNS — AUKS Sp Su F W ___ Pomarine Jaeger - 1 1 - ___ Parasitic Jaeger - 1 1 - ___ Laughing Gull 2 2 2 - ___ Little Gull 2 1 2 1 ___ Black-headed Gull 1 1 1 2 ___ Bonaparte's Gull 2 3 2 2 ___ Ring-billed Gull 3 4 4 2 ___*Herring Gull 5 5 5 5 ___ Iceland Gull 2 - 2 2 ___ Glaucous Gull 2 - 2 2 ___ Great Black-backed Gull 5 5 5 5 ___ Black-legged Kittiwake 1 - 1 1 ___ Gull-billed Tern 1 1 1 - ___ Caspian Tern 2 1 2 - ___ Royal Tern - 2 1 - ___ Roseate Tern 2 2 2 - ___*Common Tern 4 4 2 - ___ Arctic Tern - 1 - - ___*Forster's Tern - 2 2 - ___*Least Tern 3 3 2 - ___ Black Tern 2 2 2 - ___ Black Skimmer - 1 1 - ___ Dovekie - - 1 1 ___ Thick-billed Murre 1 - 1 2 ___ Razorbill 1 - 1 1 ___ Black Guillemot 1 - 1 1
DOVES — CUCKOOS — OWLS — SWIFTS — HUMMINGBIRDS Sp Su F W ___*Rock Dove 2 2 2 2 ___*Mourning Dove 4 5 3 2 ___ Black-billed Cuckoo 2 2 2 - ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo 2 2 2 - ___ Eastern Screech-Owl 1 1 1 1 ___*Great Horned Owl 1 1 1 1 ___ Snowy Owl 2 - 2 3 ___ Long-eared Owl 1 - 1 1 ___ Short-eared Owl 2 - 2 2 ___ Northern Saw-whet Owl 1 - 1 1 ___ Common Nighthawk 1 2 2 - ___ Whip-poor-will 1 1 1 - ___ Chimney Swift 3 3 3 - ___*Ruby-throated Hummingbird 2 2 2 - ___*Belted Kingfisher 3 3 3 2
WOODPECKERS — FLYCATCHERS Sp Su F W ___ Red-headed Woodpecker 1 - 1 - ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker 2 - 2 - ___*Downy Woodpecker 3 3 3 3 ___ Hairy Woodpecker 1 1 1 1 ___ Northern Flicker 4 1 3 1 ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher 1 1 1 - ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee 2 2 2 - ___ Yellow-bellied Flycatcher 2 2 2 - ___ Acadian Flycatcher 1 1 - - ___ Alder Flycatcher 2 2 2 - ___*Willow Flycatcher 3 3 2 - ___ Least Flycatcher 2 1 1 - ___*Eastern Phoebe 3 3 3 - ___*Great Crested Flycatcher 2 2 2 - ___ Western Kingbird - - 1 - ___*Eastern Kingbird 5 5 3 -
LARKS — SWALLOWS — JAYS — CROWS Sp Su F W ___*Horned Lark 2 1 2 3 ___*Purple Martin 5 5 1 - ___*Tree Swallow 5 5 5 - ___*Northern Rough-winged Swallow 2 2 2 - ___*Bank Swallow 3 3 3 - ___*Cliff Swallow 1 1 1 - ___*Barn Swallow 4 4 4 1 ___*Blue Jay 2 1 2 1 ___*American Crow 5 5 5 5 ___ Fish Crow 1 1 1 1
TITMICE — NUTHATCHES — WRENS Sp Su F W ___*Black-capped Chickadee 3 3 3 3 ___ Boreal Chickadee 1 - 1 1 ___ Tufted Titmouse 1 1 1 1 ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch 2 2 2 1 ___ White-breasted Nuthatch 1 1 1 1 ___ Brown Creeper 2 1 2 1 ___*House Wren 1 1 1 - ___ Winter Wren 2 1 2 - ___*Marsh Wren 4 4 3 1
KINGLETS — THRUSHES — THRASHERS Sp Su F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet 2 - 3 1 ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet 3 - 3 1 ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher 2 2 2 - ___ Eastern Bluebird 1 - 1 - ___*Veery 2 2 2 - ___ Gray-cheeked Thrush1 1 1 1 - ___ Bicknell's Thrush1 1 1 1 - ___ Swainson's Thrush 2 2 2 - ___ Hermit Thrush 3 - 3 1 ___ Wood Thrush 2 1 2 - ___*American Robin 5 5 5 2 ___*Gray Catbird 5 5 5 1 ___*Northern Mockingbird 4 4 4 2 ___*Brown Thrasher 4 4 3 - 1 Precise data not available due to difficulty in differentiating these two species in the field.
WAXWINGS — SHRIKES — STARLINGS Sp Su F W ___ American Pipit 2 - 2 1 ___ Bohemian Waxwing 1 - 1 1 ___*Cedar Waxwing 2 4 3 2 ___ Northern Shrike 2 - 2 2 ___ Loggerhead Shrike 1 1 1 - ___*European Starling 5 5 5 5
VIREOS — WOOD WARBLERS Sp Su F W ___ White-eyed Vireo 1 - 1 - ___ Blue-headed Vireo 3 1 3 1 ___ Yellow-throated Vireo 1 1 1 - ___ Warbling Vireo 1 1 1 - ___ Philadelphia Vireo 1 2 2 - ___*Red-eyed Vireo 3 2 3 - ___ Blue-winged Warbler 2 1 1 - ___ Golden-winged Warbler 1 1 1 - ___ Tennessee Warbler 2 2 2 - ___ Orange-crowned Warbler 1 - 2 - ___ Nashville Warbler 2 2 2 - ___ Northern Parula 4 2 3 - ___*Yellow Warbler 5 5 2 - ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler 3 2 2 - ___ Magnolia Warbler 3 2 3 - ___ Cape May Warbler 2 2 2 - ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler 3 2 3 - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler 4 1 5 3 ___ Black-throated Green Warbler 3 2 3 - ___ Blackburnian Warbler 3 2 2 - ___ Pine Warbler 2 1 2 1 ___ Prairie Warbler 2 2 2 - ___ Palm Warbler 3 - 3 1 ___ Bay-breasted Warbler 3 3 3 - ___ Blackpoll Warbler 3 2 3 - ___ Cerulean Warbler 1 1 1 - ___ Black-and-white Warbler 4 3 3 - ___*American Redstart 5 4 3 - ___ Prothonotary Warbler 1 1 1 - ___ Worm-eating Warbler 1 1 1 - ___ Ovenbird 3 2 2 - ___ Louisiana Waterthrush 1 - - - ___ Northern Waterthrush 3 2 2 ___ Connecticut Warbler - - 1 - ___ Mourning Warbler 2 2 2 - ___*Common Yellowthroat 4 4 3 1 ___ Hooded Warbler 1 1 1 - ___ Wilson's Warbler 3 3 3 - ___ Canada Warbler 3 3 3 - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat 1 1 1 -
TANAGERS — SPARROWS Sp Su F W ___ Summer Tanager 1 1 1 - ___ Scarlet Tanager 3 2 2 - ___*Northern Cardinal 3 3 2 2 ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak 3 2 2 - ___ Blue Grosbeak 1 - 1 - ___ Indigo Bunting 2 1 2 - ___ Dickcissel 1 1 1 1 ___*Eastern Towhee 4 4 3 1 ___ American Tree Sparrow 3 - 4 4 ___ Chipping Sparrow 3 2 3 - ___ Clay-colored Sparrow 1 1 2 - ___*Field Sparrow 3 3 2 1 ___*Vesper Sparrow 1 - 1 - ___ Lark Sparrow - - 1 - ___ Lark Bunting 1 1 1 - ___*Savannah Sparrow 3 3 4 2 ___*Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow1 3 3 3 - ___ Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow1 3 1 3 1 ___*Seaside Sparrow 2 2 2 1 ___ Fox Sparrow 2 - 2 1 ___*Song Sparrow 5 5 5 2 ___ Lincoln's Sparrow 2 1 2 - ___*Swamp Sparrow 2 1 2 1 ___ White-throated Sparrow 3 1 3 2 ___ White-crowned Sparrow 2 - 2 - ___ Dark-eyed Junco 3 - 4 2 ___ Lapland Longspur 2 - 3 2 ___ Snow Bunting 3 - 4 3 1 Precise data not available due to the recent taxonomic "splitting" of the sharp-tailed sparrow.
BLACKBIRDS — FINCHES Sp Su F W ___*Bobolink 4 4 2 - ___*Red-winged Blackbird 5 5 2 2 ___*Eastern Meadowlark 2 - 2 1 ___ Yellow-headed Blackbird 1 1 1 - ___ Rusty Blackbird 2 - 2 - ___*Common Grackle 5 5 2 2 ___*Brown-headed Cowbird 4 4 2 1 ___*Orchard Oriole 2 2 - - ___*Baltimore Oriole 3 3 2 - ___ Pine Grosbeak 1 1 1 1 ___*Purple Finch 3 3 2 1 ___*House Finch 3 3 3 2 ___ Red Crossbill 1 - 1 1 ___ White-winged Crossbill 1 - 1 1 ___ Common Redpoll 1 - 1 1 ___ Pine Siskin 1 - 1 1 ___*American Goldfinch 5 5 2 2 ___ Evening Grosbeak 1 - 1 1 ___*House Sparrow 5 5 2 2
REFUGE VISITORS

The following is a list of resident or migratory bird species of eastern Massachusetts that are of extremely rare Refuge occurrence.

Cory's Shearwater                 Barn Owl 
Ruffed Grouse                     Common Raven
Yellow Rail                       Carolina Wren
Long-tailed Jaeger                Sedge Wren
Common Murre                      Grasshopper Sparrow
Atlantic Puffin                   Henslow's Sparrow

REFUGE VAGRANTS

The following is a list of bird species whose normal range does not encompass eastern Massachusetts and that are of extremely rare Refuge occurrence, some having been recorded only once.

Pacific Loon                      Lesser Black-backed Gull  
Western Grebe                     Sabine's Gull
Eared Grebe                       Ivory Gull     
American White Pelican            Sandwich Tern              
Little Egret                      Sooty Tern
White-faced Ibis                  Swainson's Hawk       
White Ibis                        Chuck-will's-widow     
Sandhill Crane                    Black-backed Woodpecker 
Greater White-fronted Goose       Scissor-tailed Flycatcher
Garganey                          Fork-tailed Flycatcher
Fulvous Whistling Duck            Say's Phoebe    
Black Rail                        Vermilion Flycatcher
Wilson's Plover                   Black-billed Magpie              
Bar-tailed Godwit                 Sage Thrasher         
Long-billed Curlew                Black-throated Gray Warbler    
Spotted Redshank                  Yellow-throated Warbler
Terek Sandpiper                   Kentucky Warbler
Curlew Sandpiper                  Black-headed Grosbeak
Little Stint                      LeConte's Sparrow
Franklin's Gull                   Harris' Sparrow
Ross' Gull                        Western Tanager
Thayer's Gull                     Hoary Redpoll

Acknowledgments

We are indebted to the many visiting ornithologists and birders who have over the years contributed significantly to the Refuge avian data base. The accuracy of future checklists depends in part upon the continued support of such professional and amateur bird enthusiasts. Please report significant observations to Refuge Headquarters at the address or phone number listed at the end of this brochure.

                   Parker River National Wildlife Refuge
                   261 Northern Boulevard, Plum Island
                   Newburyport, Massachusetts 01950
                   978/465 2807
                   Fax: 978/465 2807
                   Email: r5rw_prnwr@mail.fws.gov
Hearing impaired visitors may call the Massachusetts Relay Service at TDD/800 439 2370
                   U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
                   1 800/344 WILD
                   http://www.fws.gov/
                   

This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.  April 1999.  Parker River National Wildlife 
     Refuge, Birds.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.  April 1999.  Parker River National Wildlife 
     Refuge, Birds.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
     Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.
     http://www.npwrc.usgs.govParker.htm 
     (Version 10JUL2001).

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