Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
The refuge is a highly glaciated expanse of rolling hills, large ledge outcrops, streams, lakes, bogs and marshes. A diverse forest of aspen, maple, birch, spruce and fir dominates the landscape and scattered stands of majestic white pine are common. The Edmunds Unit boasts several miles of rocky shoreline where 24-foot tidal fluctuations are a daily occurrence.
Moosehorn offers its visitors over 50 miles of roads and trails which are closed to vehicle traffic but open for hiking and crosscountry skiing. Additional information is available by visiting the refuge headquarters, located north of Calais, off Route 1, on the Charlotte Road (Monday-Friday, 7:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.).
This resource lists 220 birds that have been identified on the refuge, and is in accordance with the Sixth American Ornithologists Union Checklist.
Enjoy yourself. Whether you're a seasoned birder or a beginner, we wish you a rewarding and memorable experience from this visit to your refuge.
Sp - Spring - March to May
S - Summer - June to August
F - Fall - September to November
W - Winter - December to February
a - abundant: a species which is very numerous
c - common: likely to be seen or heard in suitable habitat
u - uncommon: present, but not certain to be seen
o - occasional: seen only a few times during a season
r - rare: may be present but not every year
* - birds known to nest on or near the refuge
# - threatened or endangered species
For further information, contact:
LOONS, GREBES, CORMORANTS Sp S F W ___ Red-throated Loon u - u u ___ Common Loon* c c c c ___ Pied-billed Grebe* c u c - ___ Horned Grebe o - o u ___ Red-necked Grebe r r r r ___ Great Cormorant - - - c ___ Double-crested Cormorant c c c -
BITTERNS, HERONS, IBISES Sp S F W ___ American Bittern* c c c - ___ Great Blue Heron c c u - ___ Cattle Egret - r - - ___ Green Heron* o o - - ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron - r - -
SWANS, GEESE, DUCKS Sp S F W ___ Snow Goose o - - - ___ Brant o - o - ___ Canada Goose* a a a u ___ Wood Duck* c c c - ___ Green-winged Teal* c u c u ___ American Black Duck* a a a u ___ Mallard* u u u o ___ Northern Pintail o - o - ___ Blue-winged Teal* c u c - ___ Northern Shoveler - r - - ___ Gadwall o r o r ___ American Wigeon o o o - ___ Ring-necked Duck* c c c - ___ Greater Scaup o - - o ___ Lesser Scaup o - - o ___ Common Eider o o o o ___ Oldsquaw c - - c ___ Black Scoter o - c o ___ Surf Scoter o - c o ___ White-winged Scoter o - c o ___ Common Goldeneye* a u u a ___ Barrow's Goldeneye r - - r ___ Bufflehead c - o u ___ Hooded Merganser* c c c u ___ Common Merganser* c u c c ___ Red-breasted Merganser c - u c ___ Ruddy Duck r - r -
VULTURES, HAWKS, FALCONS Sp S F W ___ Turkey Vulture o o - - ___ Osprey* c c u - ___ Bald Eagle*# u u u u ___ Northern Harrier* c u c - ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk* u u u o ___ Cooper's Hawk* u u u - ___ Northern Goshawk* u u u u ___ Red-shouldered Hawk* o u o - ___ Broad-winged Hawk* u c u - ___ Red-tailed Hawk o o o o ___ Rough-legged Hawk o - o o ___ American Kestrel* c c c o ___ Merlin* o r o - ___ Peregrine Falcon# - - r -
GROUSE Sp S F W ___ Spruce Grouse* u u u u ___ Ruffed Grouse* a a a a
RAILS, CRANES Sp S F W ___ Yellow Rail - r r - ___ Virginia Rail* u u u - ___ Sora* u u u - ___ Common Moorhen - r - - ___ American Coot* o o o -
PLOVERS, SANDPIPERS Sp S F W ___ Black-bellied Plover o o o - ___ American Golden Plover - - r - ___ Semipalmated Plover u u u - ___ Killdeer* c c c - ___ Greater Yellowlegs c u c - ___ Lesser Yellowlegs o u u - ___ Solitary Sandpiper u u u - ___ Spotted Sandpiper* c c c - ___ Upland Sandpiper r r - - ___ Whimbrel - r - - ___ Ruddy Turnstone r r r - ___ Sanderling o o o - ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper u a c - ___ Western Sandpiper - r - - ___ Least Sandpiper u a c - ___ Pectoral Sandpiper - - r - ___ Short-billed Dowitcher - u - - ___ Common Snipe* c c c - ___ American Woodcock* a a a - ___ Wilson's Phalarope - r r - ___ Red-necked Phalarope - - r -
GULLS, TERNS Sp S F W ___ Bonaparte's Gull r a a r ___ Ring-billed Gull o o o o ___ Herring Gull a a a a ___ Great Black-backed Gull c c c c ___ Common Tern u u u - ___ Arctic Tern o o o - ___ Black Tern - r - -
DOVES, OWLS, HUMMINGBIRDS Sp S F W ___ Rock Dove u u u u ___ Mourning Dove* c c u - ___ Black-billed Cuckoo* u u u - ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo* o o o - ___ Great Horned Owl* c c c c ___ Snowy Owl - - - r ___ Barred Owl* c c c c ___ Long-eared Owl r r r r ___ Short-eared Owl r r r r ___ Boreal Owl - - - r ___ Northern Saw-whet Owl* u u u r ___ Common Nighthawk* c c c - ___ Whip-poor-will* u u u - ___ Chimney Swift* c c c - ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird* c c c - ___ Belted Kingfisher* c c c r
WOODPECKERS, FLYCATCHERS Sp S F W ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker* c c c - ___ Downy Woodpecker* c c c u ___ Hairy Woodpecker* c c c u ___ Three-toed Woodpecker - - - r ___ Black-backed Woodpecker* o o o r ___ Northern Flicker* a c a - ___ Pileated Woodpecker* u u u u ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher* u u u - ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee* c c c - ___ Yellow-bellied Flycatcher* u u - - ___ Alder Flycatcher* c c c - ___ Least Flycatcher* c c c - ___ Eastern Phoebe* c c c - ___ Great Crested Flycatcher* u u - - ___ Eastern Kingbird* c c c -
LARKS, SWALLOWS, JAYS, CROWS Sp S F W ___ Horned Lark u - - u ___ Purple Martin* r r - - ___ Tree Swallow* a a a - ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow o - - - ___ Bank Swallow* c c u - ___ Cliff Swallow* c c u - ___ Barn Swallow* a a u - ___ Gray Jay* o o o o ___ Blue Jay* c c c u ___ American Crow* c c c c ___ Common Raven* c c c c
TITMICE, NUTHATCHES, WRENS Sp S F W ___ Black-capped Chickadee* c c c c ___ Boreal Chickadee* u u u u ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch* c c c c ___ White-breasted Nuthatch o o o o ___ Brown Creeper* c c c u ___ House Wren* u u u - ___ Winter Wren* c c c - ___ Marsh Wren* o o o -
KINGLETS, THRUSHES, THRASHERS Sp S F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet* c c c u ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet* c u c - ___ Eastern Bluebird* r r r - ___ Veery* c c c - ___ Gray-cheeked Thrush u - u - ___ Swainson's Thrush* u u o - ___ Hermit Thrush* c c c - ___ Wood Thrush* c c c - ___ American Robin* a a a o ___ Gray Catbird* c c c - ___ Northern Mockingbird r r - - ___ Brown Thrasher o o o -
WAXWINGS, SHRIKES, STARLINGS Sp S F W ___ American Pipit - - r r ___ Bohemian Waxwing - - - r ___ Cedar Waxwing* c c c - ___ Northern Shrike o - o o ___ European Starling c c c u
VIREOS, WOOD WARBLERS Sp S F W ___ White-eyed Vireo - r - - ___ Solitary Vireo* c c - - ___ Yellow-throated Vireo* r r r - ___ Warbling Vireo* u u u - ___ Philadelphia Vireo* u u u - ___ Red-eyed Vireo* c c c - ___ Tennessee Warbler* c c c - ___ Nashville Warbler* c c c - ___ Northern Parula* c c c - ___ Yellow Warbler* c c c - ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler* c c c - ___ Magnolia Warbler* c c c - ___ Cape May Warbler* u u u - ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler* u u u - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler* c c c - ___ Black-throated Green Warbler* c c c - ___ Blackburnian Warbler* c c c - ___ Pine Warbler* u u u - ___ Palm Warbler* u u u - ___ Bay-breasted Warbler* u u o - ___ Blackpoll Warbler* o o o - ___ Black-and-white Warbler* c c c - ___ American Redstart* c c c - ___ Ovenbird* a a a - ___ Northern Waterthrush* c c c - ___ Mourning Warbler* u u u - ___ Common Yellowthroat* c c c - ___ Wilson's Warbler* u u u - ___ Canada Warbler* o o o -
TANAGERS, SPARROWS Sp S F W ___ Scarlet Tanager* u u u - ___ Northern Cardinal r - - r ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak* u u u - ___ Indigo Bunting* o o o - ___ Rufous-sided Towhee o o o - ___ American Tree Sparrow c - c c ___ Chipping Sparrow* c c c - ___ Field Sparrow* u u u - ___ Vesper Sparrow * u u u - ___ Savannah Sparrow* c c c - ___ Sharp-tailed Sparrow* o o o - ___ Fox Sparrow o - o o ___ Song Sparrow* c c c - ___ Lincoln's Sparrow* u u u - ___ Swamp Sparrow* c c c - ___ White-throated Sparrow* c c c o ___ White-crowned Sparrow u - u - ___ Dark-eyed Junco* c c c u ___ Lapland Longspur - - - r ___ Snow Bunting - - u u
BLACKBIRDS, FINCHES Sp S F W ___ Bobolink* c c c - ___ Red-winged Blackbird* a a a r ___ Eastern Meadowlark* r r r - ___ Rusty Blackbird* u u u - ___ Common Grackle* c c c - ___ Brown-headed Cowbird* c c c r ___ Baltimore Oriole* u u u - ___ Pine Grosbeak* o o o u ___ Purple Finch* c c c o ___ Red Crossbill* o o o o ___ White-winged Crossbill* o o o o ___ Common Redpoll o - - u ___ Pine Siskin* o o o c ___ American Goldfinch* c c c u ___ Evening Grosbeak c u c c ___ House Sparrow o o o o
Refuge Manager Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge P.O. Box 1077 Calais, Maine 04619 Telephone: 207/454-3521Hard of hearing of deaf visitors may call the Maine Relay Center at 1-800-437-1220 TDD/1-800-457-1220 voice
The Service also manages National Fish Hatcheries, and provides Federal leadership in habitat protection, fish and wildlife research, technical assistance and the conservation and protection of migratory birds, certain marine mammals and threatened and endangered species.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. Birds of Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Calais, Maine. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Unpaginated.This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. Birds of Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Calais, Maine. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Unpaginated. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online. http://www.npwrc.usgs.govmooshorn.htm (Version 22MAY98).