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Bird Checklists of the United States

Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

Seneca Falls, New York


Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge in Seneca County, New York, was established in 1937 to provide nesting, resting, and feeding areas for ducks, geese, and many other water birds and songbirds. This refuge contains 6,432 acres of widely diversified habitat, from extensive marshes to upland hardwoods. In addition to meeting habitat requirements for tens of thousands of spring and fall migrant birds, the refuge annually provides wildlife education and recreation to a quarter of a million visitors.

Public uses include a 3.5 mile self-guiding auto tour around the Main Pool, a Visitor Contact Station, a 2-mile hiking trail and ample opportunities to photograph wildlife.

Birding opportunities are best from March through November with peak migrations of waterfowl in mid-April and early October. Warblers are abundant in late May to early June. Summer nesters and broods provide excellent viewing - there is always something to see on a birding tour.

This resource lists 315 species of birds that have been identified on Montezuma Refuge since its establishment in 1937. Please report any sightings of birds that are not included in this list to the Refuge Manager.


Most birds are migratory, therefore their seasonal occurrence is coded as follows:

Season
Sp - Spring - March to May
S - Summer - June to August
F - Fall - September to November
W - Winter - December to February

Relative Abundance
a - abundant: a species which is very numerous
c - common: likely to be seen or heard in suitable habitat
u - uncommon: present, but not certain to be seen
o - occasional: seen only a few times during a season
r - rare: may be present but not every year
* - birds known to nest on or near the refuge
# - threatened or endangered species


LOONS, GREBES, CORMORANT Sp S F W ___ Red-throated Loon r - - - ___ Common Loon o - o - ___ Pied-billed Grebe* c c c - ___ Horned Grebe o - o - ___ Red-necked Grebe r - r - ___ Double-crested Cormorant o c c -
BITTERNS, HERONS, IBISES Sp S F W ___ American Bittern* o c c - ___ Least Bittern* o o o - ___ Great Blue Heron* c c c o ___ Great Egret o c o - ___ Snowy Egret - r - - ___ Little Blue Heron - r r - ___ Cattle Egret r - - - ___ Green Heron* o c o - ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron* o c c - ___ Glossy Ibis r r - -
SWANS, GEESE, DUCKS Sp S F W ___ Tundra Swan o - r o ___ Mute Swan o - o - ___ Snow Goose c - o - ___ Brant - - o - ___ Canada Goose* a c c c ___ Wood Duck* c c c - ___ Green-winged Teal* c o c - ___ American Black Duck* a c a o ___ Mallard* a c a o ___ Northern Pintail* c o c - ___ Blue-winged Teal* c c c - ___ Northern Shoveler* c o c - ___ Gadwall* c c c - ___ Eurasian Wigeon r - r - ___ American Wigeon* c o c - ___ Canvasback* c o c - ___ Redhead* c o c - ___ Ring-necked Duck c o c - ___ Greater Scaup c - c - ___ Lesser Scaup o o o - ___ Oldsquaw o - o - ___ Black Scoter r - r - ___ Surf Scoter r - r - ___ White-winged Scoter r - r - ___ Common Goldeneye c - c - ___ Bufflehead c - c - ___ Hooded Merganser* c o a o ___ Common Merganser a o a c ___ Red-breasted Merganser o r o - ___ Ruddy Duck* o - o -
VULTURES, HAWKS, FALCONS Sp S F W ___ Turkey Vulture c c c c ___ Osprey* c c c - ___ Bald Eagle*# o o o o ___ Northern Harrier* o o o o ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk* o o o o ___ Cooper's Hawk o o o o ___ Northern Goshawk o o o - ___ Red-shouldered Hawk o - o - ___ Broad-winged Hawk o - o - ___ Red-tailed Hawk* c c c c ___ Rough-legged Hawk - - o c ___ Golden Eagle - o o - ___ American Kestrel* c c c o ___ Merlin r - r - ___ Peregrine Falcon# r - r -
PHEASANT, GROUSE Sp S F W ___ Ring-necked Pheasant* u u u u ___ Ruffed Grouse* u u u u
RAILS, CRANES Sp S F W ___ King Rail r r r - ___ Virginia Rail* c c c r ___ Sora* c c c - ___ Common Moorhen* c c c - ___ American Coot* c c c -
PLOVERS, SANDPIPERS Sp S F W ___ Black-bellied Plover o o o - ___ American Golden Plover r o o - ___ Semipalmated Plover o c c - ___ Killdeer* c c c - ___ Greater Yellowlegs c c c - ___ Lesser Yellowlegs c c c - ___ Solitary Sandpiper r o o - ___ Spotted Sandpiper* c c c - ___ Upland Sandpiper - r - - ___ Whimbrel r - r - ___ Hudsonian Godwit - r o - ___ Ruddy Turnstone o o o - ___ Red Knot r r r - ___ Sanderling r r r - ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper c c c - ___ Western Sandpiper - r r - ___ Least Sandpiper c o c - ___ White-rumped Sandpiper o o o - ___ Baird's Sandpiper - - r o ___ Pectoral Sandpiper c c c - ___ Dunlin c - c - ___ Stilt Sandpiper o c c - ___ Ruff - r r - ___ Short-billed Dowitcher c o c - ___ Long-billed Dowitcher - - c - ___ Common Snipe* o o o - ___ American Woodcock* o o o - ___ Wilson's Phalarope r r - - ___ Red-necked Phalarope r o o -
GULLS, TERNS Sp S F W ___ Bonaparte's Gull o o o - ___ Ring-billed Gull c c c o ___ Herring Gull c o c c ___ Great Black-backed Gull o o o u ___ Caspian Tern o - o - ___ Common Tern* o o o - ___ Black Tern* o o o -
DOVES, OWLS, HUMMINGBIRDS Sp S F W ___ Rock Dove* o o o o ___ Mourning Dove* c c c o ___ Black-billed Cuckoo* o o - - ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo* o o - - ___ Barn Owl r r r r ___ Eastern Screech-Owl* c c c - ___ Great Horned Owl* c c c c ___ Snowy Owl - - - r ___ Barred Owl* r r r r ___ Short-eared Owl o r o o ___ Northern Saw-whet Owl r - r r ___ Common Nighthawk - r - - ___ Whip-poor-will r - - - ___ Chimney Swift* o o - - ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird* - o - - ___ Belted Kingfisher* c c c o
WOODPECKERS, FLYCATCHERS Sp S F W ___ Red-bellied Woodpecker* o o o o ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker o - o - ___ Downy Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Hairy Woodpecker* o o o o ___ Northern Flicker* c c c o ___ Pileated Woodpecker* o o o o ___ Red-headed Woodpecker o o o - ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher r - r - ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee* - c - - ___ Alder Flycatcher o o - - ___ Willow Flycatcher o c - - ___ Least Flycatcher* - c - - ___ Eastern Phoebe* c c c - ___ Great Crested Flycatcher* o c - - ___ Eastern Kingbird* c c o -
LARKS, SWALLOWS, JAYS, CROWS Sp S F W ___ Horned Lark* o o o o ___ Purple Martin* c c - - ___ Tree Swallow* c c c r ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow o o - - ___ Bank Swallow* c c - - ___ Cliff Swallow* r r - - ___ Barn Swallow* c c c - ___ Blue Jay* c c c c ___ American Crow* c c c o
TITMICE, NUTHATCHES, WRENS Sp S F W ___ Black-capped Chickadee* c c c c ___ Tufted Titmouse o o o - ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch* o - o r ___ White-breasted Nuthatch* c c c c ___ Brown Creeper* o o o o ___ Carolina Wren r r r - ___ House Wren* c c - - ___ Winter Wren* c c c - ___ Sedge Wren* r r - - ___ Marsh Wren* c c c -
KINGLETS, THRUSHES, THRASHERS Sp S F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet c - c - ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet c - c - ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher o - o - ___ Eastern Bluebird* u u u r ___ Veery* c c o - ___ Gray-cheeked Thrush o - o - ___ Swainson's Thrush o - o - ___ Hermit Thrush c - c - ___ Wood Thrush* c c o - ___ American Robin* c c c o ___ Gray Catbird* c c c - ___ Northern Mockingbird r r - - ___ Brown Thrasher* o o o -
WAXWINGS, SHRIKES, STARLING Sp S F W ___ American Pipit c - c - ___ Cedar Waxwing* o o o o ___ Northern Shrike - - - o ___ Loggerhead Shrike r r - - ___ European Starling* a a a o
VIREOS, WOOD WARBLERS Sp S F W ___ Solitary Vireo o - o - ___ Yellow-throated Vireo* o o - - ___ Warbling Vireo* c c c - ___ Philadelphia Vireo r - r - ___ Red-eyed Vireo* c c c - ___ Blue-winged Warbler r - - - ___ Golden-winged Warbler o o - - ___ Tennessee Warbler o - o - ___ Orange-crowned Warbler r - - - ___ Nashville Warbler c - c - ___ Northern Parula o - o - ___ Yellow Warbler* c c c - ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler o - o - ___ Magnolia Warbler c - c - ___ Cape May Warbler c - c - ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler c - c - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler c - c - ___ Black-throated Green Warbler c - c - ___ Blackburnian Warbler c - c - ___ Pine Warbler o - o - ___ Prairie Warbler o - o - ___ Palm Warbler o - o - ___ Bay-breasted Warbler o - o - ___ Blackpoll Warbler c - c - ___ Cerulean Warbler* c o c - ___ Black-and-white Warbler c o c - ___ American Redstart* c c c - ___ Prothonotary Warbler* o o - - ___ Ovenbird* c c c - ___ Northern Waterthrush o o o - ___ Louisiana Waterthrush o o o - ___ Connecticut Warbler r - r - ___ Mourning Warbler o o o - ___ Common Yellowthroat* c c c - ___ Hooded Warbler r - r - ___ Wilson's Warbler o - o - ___ Canada Warbler c - o - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat r r - -
TANAGERS, SPARROWS Sp S F W ___ Scarlet Tanager* c o o - ___ Northern Cardinal* c c c c ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak* c c c - ___ Indigo Bunting* c c - - ___ Rufous-sided Towhee* c o c - ___ American Tree Sparrow - - c c ___ Chipping Sparrow* c c c - ___ Field Sparrow* c c c o ___ Vesper Sparrow* o o o - ___ Savannah Sparrow* o o o - ___ Grasshopper Sparrow* o o o - ___ Henslow's Sparrow* o o o - ___ Fox Sparrow c - c - ___ Song Sparrow* c c c o ___ Lincoln's Sparrow o - o - ___ Swamp Sparrow* c c c - ___ White-throated Sparrow c - c - ___ White-crowned Sparrow c - c - ___ Dark-eyed Junco o o o - ___ Lapland Longspur - - - o ___ Snow Bunting - - - o
BLACKBIRDS, FINCHES Sp S F W ___ Bobolink* o o c - ___ Red-winged Blackbird* a a a o ___ Eastern Meadowlark* c c c o ___ Rusty Blackbird o - o - ___ Common Grackle* a a a o ___ Brown-headed Cowbird* c c a o ___ Baltimore Oriole* c c c - ___ Purple Finch* c o c o ___ House Finch* o o o o ___ Common Redpoll - - - r ___ Pine Siskin - - - r ___ American Goldfinch* c c c o ___ Evening Grosbeak r - r r ___ House Sparrow* c c c c
ACCIDENTALS - the following species have been seen on the refuge one or two times:
Western Grebe                                  Parasitic Jaeger
Eared Grebe                                    Glaucous Gull
Leach's Storm-Petrel                           Iceland Gull
Wilson's Storm-Petrel                          Little Gull
American White Pelican                         Least Tern
Northern Gannet                                Arctic Tern
Black Swan                                     Roseate Tern
Pink-footed Goose                              Forster's Tern
White-fronted Goose                            Gull-billed Tern
Bar-headed Goose                               Razorbill
Egyptian Goose                                 Thick-billed Murre
Cinnamon Teal                                  Dovekie
Shelduck                                       Black Guillemot
Fulvous Whistling-Duck                         White-winged Dove
Barrow's Goldeneye                             Long-eared Owl
King Eider                                     Scissor-tailed Flycatcher
Red-crested Pochard                            Western Kingbird
Masked Duck                                    Say's Phoebe
Gyrfalcon                                      Yellow-bellied Flycatcher
Wild Turkey                                    Acadian Flycatcher
Northern Bobwhite                              Gray Jay
Tricolored Heron                               Common Raven
Yellow-crowned Night-Heron                     Boreal Chickadee
White Ibis                                     Sprague's Pipit
Greater Flamingo                               Bohemian Waxwing
Sandhill Crane                                 Yellow-headed Blackbird
Yellow Rail                                    Brewer's Blackbird
Black Rail                                     Boat-tailed Grackle
Purple Gallinule                               Blue Grosbeak
American Avocet                                Pine Grosbeak
Black-necked Stilt                             European Goldfinch
Northern Lapwing                               White-winged Crossbill
Piping Plover                                  Dickcissel
Marbled Godwit                                 Sharp-tailed Sparrow
Buff-breasted Sandpiper                        Lark Sparrow
Red Phalarope                                  Clay-colored Sparrow

For more information contact:
                      Refuge Manager
                      Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge
                      3395 Route 5/20 East
                      Seneca Falls, New York 13148
                      Telephone: 315/568-5987

Montezuma is one of more than 500 refuges in the National Wildlife Refuge System administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The National Wildlife Refuge System is a network of lands and waters managed specifically for the protection of wildlife and wildlife habitat and represents the most comprehensive wildlife resource management program in the world. Units of the system stretch across the United States from northern Alaska to the Florida Keys, and include small islands in the Caribbean and South Pacific. The character of the refuges is as diverse as the nation itself.

The Service also manages National Fish Hatcheries, and provides Federal leadership in habitat protection, fish and wildlife research, technical assistance and the conservation and protection of migratory birds, certain marine mammals and threatened and endangered species.


This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1991.  Birds of Montezuma National Wildlife 
     Refuge, New York.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1991.  Birds of Montezuma National Wildlife 
     Refuge, New York.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated. 
     Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.
     http://www.npwrc.usgs.govmontezum.htm 
     (Version 22MAY98).

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