Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Alabama, New York
Public use includes nature study, especially bird watching and observation of concentrations of migrating waterfowl from convenient overlooks, walking nature trails, photography, hunting, fishing, and leisurely driving through the Refuge.
Birding is best from March through November. Peak migrations of waterfowl are in mid-April and early October. May is the best time to observe warblers, with the most species likely to be seen between the tenth and the twenty-first of the month. Visitors can readily view summering waterfowl and their broods. One can always expect to see some interesting birds on a tour of the Refuge, regardless of the season.
Enjoy yourself. Whether you're a seasoned birder or a beginner, we wish you a rewarding and memorable experience from this visit to your Refuge.
This resource lists 266 birds that have been identified on the Refuge, and is in accordance with the Sixth American Ornithologists' Union Checklist.
Sp - Spring - March 21 to June 20
S - Summer - June 21 to September 20
F - Fall - September 21 to December 20
W - Winter - December 21 to March 20
Relative Abundance - indicates how frequently you might see a bird
in its favored habitat.
a - abundant: a species which is very numerous
c - common: likely to be seen or heard in suitable habitat
u - uncommon: present, but not certain to be seen
o - occasional: seen only a few times during a season
r - rare: may be present but not every year
* - birds known to nest on or near the refuge
# - threatened or endangered species
ACCIDENTALS - the following 36 species have been seen on the Refuge one or two times:
LOONS, GREBES Sp S F W ___ Common Loon o - - - ___ Pied-billed Grebe* c c c - ___ Horned Grebe o - - - ___ Red-necked Grebe r - - -
CORMORANTS Sp S F W ___ Double-crested Cormorant o r - -
BITTERNS, HERONS Sp S F W ___ American Bittern* u u u - ___ Least Bittern* u u u - ___ Great Blue Heron* c a c o ___ Great Egret o o o - ___ Cattle Egret r r - - ___ Green Heron* u u u - ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron o o o -
SWANS, GEESE, DUCKS Sp S F W ___ Tundra Swan c r o r ___ Greater White-Fronted Goose r - - - ___ Snow Goose o - o - ___ Barnacle Goose r - - - ___ Canada Goose* a c c u ___ Wood Duck* c c c r ___ Green-winged Teal* c o c r ___ American Black Duck* c u c o ___ Mallard* c c c o ___ Northern Pintail* c o u r ___ Blue-winged Teal* c c u - ___ Northern Shoveler* u o u - ___ Gadwall* u o c r ___ American Wigeon* c o c - ___ Canvasback o - o - ___ Redhead o - o - ___ Ring-necked Duck c - c - ___ Greater Scaup o - o - ___ Lesser Scaup u - u - ___ Oldsquaw o - o - ___ Black Scoter - - r - ___ Surf Scoter - - r - ___ White-winged Scoter r - r - ___ Common Goldeneye u - u r ___ Bufflehead u - u - ___ Hooded Merganser* c u u r ___ Common Merganser o - o - ___ Red-breasted Merganser o - o - ___ Ruddy Duck o o o -
VULTURES, HAWKS, FALCONS Sp S F W ___ Turkey Vulture* c c c - ___ Osprey o o o - ___ Bald Eagle*# u u u r ___ Northern Harrier* u u u o ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk* o o o o ___ Cooper's Hawk* o o o o ___ Northern Goshawk - - - r ___ Red-shouldered Hawk* o o o r ___ Broad-winged Hawk o - - - ___ Red-tailed Hawk* c c c c ___ Rough-legged Hawk o - o o ___ Golden Eagle r - - - ___ American Kestrel* c c c u ___ Peregrine Falcon# r - r -
GROUSE, QUAIL, TURKEY Sp S F W ___ Ring-necked Pheasant* u u u u ___ Ruffed Grouse* u u u u ___ Wild Turkey* u u u u
RAILS, CRANES Sp S F W ___ Yellow Rail - - r - ___ King Rail* r r r - ___ Virginia Rail* u u u - ___ Sora* u u u - ___ Common Moorhen* c c c - ___ American Coot* c c c r
PLOVERS, SANDPIPERS Sp S F W ___ Black-bellied Plover o o o - ___ American Golden Plover r r r - ___ Semipalmated Plover o r o - ___ Killdeer* c c c - ___ Greater Yellowlegs c o c - ___ Lesser Yellowlegs c o c - ___ Solitary Sandpiper u o u - ___ Spotted Sandpiper* c c u - ___ Upland Sandpiper* o o - - ___ Ruddy Turnstone r - - - ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper c o c - ___ Least Sandpiper u o u - ___ White-rumped Sandpiper r r r - ___ Pectoral Sandpiper c o c - ___ Dunlin u o c - ___ Stilt Sandpiper - r - - ___ Short-billed Dowitcher o o o - ___ Long-billed Dowitcher - - r - ___ Common Snipe* c u c - ___ American Woodcock* c u u - ___ Wilson's Phalarope r r - - ___ Red-necked Phalarope - r r -
GULLS, TERNS Sp S F W ___ Bonaparte's Gull o r - - ___ Ring-billed Gull c u u o ___ Herring Gull o o o o ___ Great Black-backed Gull r r r r ___ Caspian Tern o o - - ___ Common Tern o o - - ___ Black Tern* c c r -
DOVES, CUCKOOS, OWLS, SWIFTS, HUMMINGBIRD Sp S F W ___ Rock Dove* u u u u ___ Mourning Dove* c c c u ___ Black-billed Cuckoo* u u u - ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo o o o - ___ Barn Owl r r r r ___ Eastern Screech-Owl* u u u u ___ Great Horned Owl* c c c c ___ Snowy Owl - - r r ___ Barred Owl* u u u u ___ Short-eared Owl o - o o ___ Northern Saw-whet Owl - - - r ___ Common Nighthawk o o - - ___ Whip-poor-will r r - - ___ Chimney Swift o o o - ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird* u u - - ___ Belted Kingfisher* u u u o
WOODPECKERS, FLYCATCHERS Sp S F W ___ Red-headed Woodpecker* o o o o ___ Red-bellied Woodpecker* u u u u ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker* o - o - ___ Downy Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Hairy Woodpecker* u u u u ___ Northern Flicker* c c c o ___ Pileated Woodpecker* u u u u ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee* c c u - ___ Alder Flycatcher* o o - - ___ Willow Flycatcher* u u - - ___ Least Flycatcher* u u r - ___ Eastern Phoebe* c c c - ___ Great Crested Flycatcher* c c - - ___ Eastern Kingbird* c c - -
LARKS, SWALLOWS, JAYS, CROWS Sp S F W ___ Horned Lark* c u c u ___ Purple Martin* u u r - ___ Tree Swallow* c c c - ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow r o r - ___ Bank Swallow* u c - - ___ Cliff Swallow* o o - - ___ Barn Swallow* c c c - ___ Blue Jay* c c c c ___ American Crow* c c c u
TITMICE, NUTHATCHES, WRENS Sp S F W ___ Black-capped Chickadee* c c c c ___ Tufted Titmouse o o o o ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch o - o - ___ White-breasted Nuthatch* c c c c ___ Brown Creeper* u u u u ___ Carolina Wren o - o - ___ House Wren* c c c - ___ Winter Wren o - o r ___ Sedge Wren* r r r - ___ Marsh Wren* c c o -
KINGLETS, THRUSHES, THRASHERS Sp S F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet* u o u o ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet u - u - ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher* u u o - ___ Eastern Bluebird* u o u r ___ Veery* c c o - ___ Gray-cheeked Thrush r - r - ___ Swainson's Thrush u - o - ___ Hermit Thrush u - u r ___ Wood Thrush* c c u - ___ American Robin* c c c o ___ Gray Catbird* c c c - ___ Northern Mockingbird o o o r ___ Brown Thrasher* u o o r
WAXWINGS, SHRIKES, STARLING Sp S F W ___ American Pipit o - o - ___ Bohemian Waxwing - - r r ___ Cedar Waxwing* c c c u ___ Northern Shrike o - o o ___ European Starling* c c c c
VIREOS, WOOD WARBLERS Sp S F W ___ Solitary Vireo o - - - ___ Yellow-throated Vireo* u u - - ___ Warbling Vireo* c c - - ___ Philadelphia Vireo o - o - ___ Red-eyed Vireo* c c u - ___ Blue-winged Warbler* u u - - ___ Golden-winged Warbler* u u - - ___ Tennessee Warbler u u u - ___ Orange-crowned Warbler r r r - ___ Nashville Warbler u u u - ___ Northern Parula r r r - ___ Yellow Warbler* c c - - ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler u r u - ___ Magnolia Warbler u u u - ___ Cape May Warbler u o o - ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler u o o - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler c o c - ___ Black-throated Green Warbler u u u - ___ Blackburnian Warbler u r u - ___ Pine Warbler r o o - ___ Palm Warbler u o o - ___ Bay-breasted Warbler u r u - ___ Blackpoll Warbler u r o - ___ Cerulean Warbler* u u - - ___ Black-and-white Warbler u o o - ___ American Redstart* c c u - ___ Prothonotary Warbler* u u - - ___ Ovenbird* c c u - ___ Northern Waterthrush* u o u - ___ Mourning Warbler* u o u - ___ Common Yellowthroat* c c u - ___ Hooded Warbler r - - - ___ Wilson's Warbler o o o - ___ Canada Warbler o o o - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat* r r - -
TANAGERS, SPARROWS Sp S F W ___ Scarlet Tanager* u u u - ___ Northern Cardinal* u u u u ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak* c c c - ___ Indigo Bunting* u u u - ___ Rufous-sided Towhee* u u u r ___ American Tree Sparrow u - c c ___ Chipping Sparrow* c c c - ___ Field Sparrow* c c u - ___ Vesper Sparrow* o o o - ___ Savannah Sparrow* c c c - ___ Grasshopper Sparrow* o o - - ___ Henslow's Sparrow* o o - - ___ Fox Sparrow o - o - ___ Song Sparrow* c c c o ___ Swamp Sparrow* c c c o ___ White-throated Sparrow c - c o ___ White-crowned Sparrow c - c r ___ Dark-eyed Junco c - c u ___ Lapland Longspur - - - r ___ Snow Bunting o - o o
BLACKBIRDS, FINCHES Sp S F W ___ Bobolink* c c o - ___ Red-winged Blackbird* a c a o ___ Eastern Meadowlark* c c c o ___ Rusty Blackbird u - u - ___ Common Grackle* c c c r ___ Brown-headed Cowbird* c c c o ___ Baltimore Oriole* c c - - ___ Pine Grosbeak - - r r ___ Purple Finch* u o u o ___ House Finch* u u u u ___ Common Redpoll - - - o ___ Pine Siskin r r r r ___ American Goldfinch* c c c u ___ Evening Grosbeak u - u u ___ House Sparrow* c c c c
Red-throated Loon Western Sandpiper Eared Grebe Baird's Sandpiper Snowy Egret Ruff Little Blue Heron Lesser Black-backed Gull Glossy Ibis Glaucous Gull Fulvous Whistling-Duck Black-legged Kittiwake Brant Forster's Tern Eurasian Wigeon Long-eared Owl Merlin Three-toed Woodpecker Gyrfalcon Acadian Flycatcher Sandhill Crane Loggerhead Shrike American Avocet White-eyed Vireo Willet Summer Tanager Whimbrel Lincoln's Sparrow Hudsonian Godwit Yellow-headed Blackbird Marbled Godwit Orchard Oriole Red Knot Red Crossbill Sanderling White-winged Crossbill
Refuge Manager Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge P.O. Box 517, Casey Road Alabama, New York 14003 Telephone: 716/948-9154
The Service also manages National Fish Hatcheries, and provides Federal leadership in habitat protection, fish and wildlife research, technical assistance and the conservation and protection of migratory birds, certain marine mammals and threatened and endangered species.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1992. Birds of Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge, New York. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Unpaginated.This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1992. Birds of Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge, New York. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Unpaginated. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online. http://www.npwrc.usgs.goviroquois.htm (Version 22MAY98).