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Bird Checklists of the United States

John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum is located in Philadelphia and Delaware Counties, Pennsylvania, about one mile from the Philadelphia International Airport. The refuge was established by public law in 1972 to protect the last 205 acres of freshwater tidal marsh in Pennsylvania. When acquisition is completed, the refuge will total nearly 1200 acres.

Diking, dredging and filling over the years have created a wide variety of habitat conditions at the refuge from stream, pond, and tidal marsh to oldfield and lowland woods.

Bird watchers have recorded 288 species of birds on the refuge and its immediate environs. Over 85 species have nested here. Migratory birds such as Canada geese, great blue herons, egrets, killdeer, sandpipers, and a large variety of ducks within the Atlantic Flycway use the refuge as a resting and feeding stop during spring and fall. In addition, approximately 35 species of warblers visit the refuge during their migration.

This resource lists 288 birds that have been identified on the Refuge, and is in accordance with the Sixth American Ornithologists' Union Checklist.

Most birds are migratory, therefore their seasonal occurrence is coded as follows:

Sp - Spring - March to May
S - Summer - June to August
F - Fall - September to November
W - Winter - December to February

Relative Abundance
a - abundant: a species which is very numerous
c - common: likely to be seen or heard in suitable habitat
u - uncommon: present, but not certain to be seen
o - occasional: seen only a few times during a season
r - rare: may be present but not every year
* - birds known to nest on or near the refuge
# - threatened or endangered species

LOONS, GREBES Sp S F W ___ Red-throated Loon - - r r ___ Common Loon o - o o ___ Pied-billed Grebe* c r c o ___ Horned Grebe r - r r ___ Red-necked Grebe r - - r
GANNETS, PELICANS, CORMORANTS Sp S F W ___ Northern Gannet - - r r ___ Double-crested Cormorant c r c r
BITTERNS, HERONS, IBISES Sp S F W ___ American Bittern* c r o r ___ Least Bittern* o c o - ___ Great Blue Heron a c a c ___ Great Egret* a a a r ___ Snowy Egret* a a a - ___ Little Blue Heron o c c - ___ Tricolored Heron o o o - ___ Cattle Egret o o r - ___ Green Heron* c a a r ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron* a a a o ___ Yellow-crowned Night-Heron r r r - ___ White Ibis r - r - ___ Glossy Ibis o o o -
SWANS, GEESE, DUCKS Sp S F W ___ Tundra Swan r - r r ___ Mute Swan o o o o ___ Snow Goose r r r r ___ Brant r - r r ___ Canada Goose* a a a c ___ Wood Duck* a c a o ___ Green-winged Teal* c o a c ___ American Black Duck* a c a c ___ Mallard* a a a c ___ Northern Pintail* c o c c ___ Blue-winged Teal* c c c r ___ Northern Shoveler* c r c o ___ Gadwall o r o o ___ Eurasian Wigeon r - r r ___ American Wigeon o - o o ___ Canvasback o - o r ___ Redhead r r r r ___ Ring-necked Duck o r o o ___ Greater Scaup c r o o ___ Lesser Scaup o - o o ___ Oldsquaw r - r r ___ White-winged Scoter r - r r ___ Common Goldeneye r r r r ___ Bufflehead o - o r ___ Hooded Merganser* o r o r ___ Common Merganser o - o o ___ Red-breasted Merganser o - r r ___ Ruddy Duck c o c c
VULTURES, HAWKS, FALCONS Sp S F W ___ Turkey Vulture o o o o ___ Osprey o o o - ___ Bald Eagle# u r u u ___ Northern Harrier* c o c c ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk o r o r ___ Cooper's Hawk o r o o ___ Northern Goshawk r - r r ___ Red-shouldered Hawk o r o o ___ Broad-winged Hawk o o c r ___ Red-tailed Hawk* c r c c ___ Rough-legged Hawk r - o o ___ Golden Eagle r - r r ___ American Kestrel* c c c c ___ Merlin o r o r ___ Peregrine Falcon# r r r r
GROUSE, QUAIL, TURKEY Sp S F W ___ Ring-necked Pheasant* a a a a ___ Northern Bobwhite* r r r r
RAILS, CRANES Sp S F W ___ Yellow Rail r - r - ___ King Rail* o o o r ___ Virginia Rail* o o o r ___ Sora* o o o r ___ Common Moorhen* u u u r ___ American Coot* c o c o
PLOVERS, SANDPIPERS Sp S F W ___ Black-bellied Plover o r c r ___ American Golden Plover r - c - ___ Semipalmated Plover c r c - ___ Piping Plover# r - r - ___ Killdeer* a a a o ___ Greater Yellowlegs c o c r ___ Lesser Yellowlegs o o o r ___ Solitary Sandpiper c o c - ___ Willet r - r - ___ Spotted Sandpiper* c c c - ___ Upland Sandpiper r r r - ___ Whimbrel r - r - ___ Hudsonian Godwit - - o - ___ Marbled Godwit - - r - ___ Ruddy Turnstone r r r - ___ Red Knot r - r - ___ Sanderling r - r - ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper c o c r ___ Western Sandpiper - r o r ___ Least Sandpiper o o o r ___ White-rumped Sandpiper o o o - ___ Baird's Sandpiper r r r - ___ Pectoral Sandpiper c o c r ___ Dunlin o - o r ___ Curlew Sandpiper r r r - ___ Stilt Sandpiper r r o - ___ Buff-breasted Sandpiper - - r - ___ Ruff o r o r ___ Short-billed Dowitcher o r o r ___ Long-billed Dowitcher o r o r ___ Common Snipe c r c o ___ American Woodcock* c c c r ___ Wilson's Phalarope r r r - ___ Red-necked Phalarope r - r -
JAEGERS, GULLS, TERNS, AUKS Sp S F W ___ Laughing Gull o o c r ___ Bonaparte's Gull o r o r ___ Ring-billed Gull c o c c ___ Herring Gull c o c c ___ Iceland Gull r - r r ___ Glaucous Gull r - r r ___ Great Black-backed Gull c o c c ___ Caspian Tern o r o - ___ Common Tern r r r - ___ Forster's Tern r o c - ___ Least Tern# r r r - ___ Royal Tern - - r - ___ Black Tern o r o - ___ Gull-billed Tern - - r -
DOVES, CUCKOOS, OWLS, SWIFTS, HUMMINGBIRDS Sp S F W ___ Rock Dove o o o o ___ Mourning Dove* c c c c ___ Black-billed Cuckoo* o o o - ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo* o o o - ___ Barn Owl* c c c c ___ Eastern Screech-Owl* r r r r ___ Great Horned Owl* c c c c ___ Snowy Owl r - r r ___ Barred Owl r r r r ___ Long-eared Owl r - r r ___ Short-eared Owl o - o o ___ Northern Saw-whet Owl r r r r ___ Common Nighthawk c o c - ___ Whip-poor-will r r r - ___ Chimney Swift c c c - ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird* c o c - ___ Belted Kingfisher c o c o
WOODPECKERS, FLYCATCHERS Sp S F W ___ Red-headed Woodpecker r r r - ___ Red-bellied Woodpecker r r r r ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker u r o r ___ Downy Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Hairy Woodpecker o o o o ___ Northern Flicker* c c c o ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher r - u - ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee o r o - ___ Yellow-bellied Flycatcher r r u - ___ Acadian Flycatcher r r u - ___ Alder Flycatcher* o o u - ___ Willow Flycatcher* c c u - ___ Least Flycatcher* r r u - ___ Eastern Phoebe* c o o r ___ Great Crested Flycatcher* o r o - ___ Western Kingbird - - r - ___ Eastern Kingbird* c c c -
LARKS, SWALLOWS, JAYS, CROWS Sp S F W ___ Horned Lark r r r r ___ Purple Martin* o r c - ___ Tree Swallow* a a a - ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow c o o - ___ Bank Swallow c o c - ___ Cliff Swallow o r o - ___ Barn Swallow* a a a - ___ Blue Jay* c c c c ___ American Crow* c c c c ___ Fish Crow* c c c c
TITMICE, NUTHATCHES, WRENS Sp S F W ___ Black-capped Chickadee o r o o ___ Carolina Chickadee* c c c c ___ Tufted Titmouse* c c c c ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch o - o o ___ White-breasted Nuthatch o o o o ___ Brown Creeper c - c c ___ Carolina Wren* c c c c ___ Bewick's Wren r r r - ___ House Wren* c c c r ___ Winter Wren o - c r ___ Sedge Wren* r r r - ___ Marsh Wren* c c c r
KINGLETS, THRUSHES, THRASHERS Sp S F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet o - c o ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet c - c o ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher o r o r ___ Eastern Bluebird o - o r ___ Veery c o c - ___ Gray-cheeked Thrush c o c - ___ Swainson's Thrush c o c - ___ Hermit Thrush o c c r ___ Wood Thrush* c c c r ___ American Robin* a a a o ___ Gray Catbird* c c c o ___ Northern Mockingbird c c c c ___ Brown Thrasher* c c c o
WAXWINGS, SHRIKES, STARLING Sp S F W ___ American Pipit o r o o ___ Cedar Waxwing* o o o o ___ Northern Shrike - - - r ___ Loggerhead Shrike r r r r ___ European Starling* a a a a
VIREOS, WOOD WARBLERS Sp S F W ___ White-eyed Vireo* c c c - ___ Solitary Vireo c r c - ___ Yellow-throated Vireo o r o - ___ Warbling Vireo* c c c - ___ Philadelphia Vireo r r r - ___ Red-eyed Vireo* c o c - ___ Blue-winged Warbler o o o - ___ Golden-winged Warbler r r r - ___ Tennessee Warbler o r o - ___ Orange-crowned Warbler r - o r ___ Nashville Warbler o r o - ___ Northern Parula c r c - ___ Yellow Warbler* a a a r ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler c r c - ___ Magnolia Warbler c r c - ___ Cape May Warbler o r c - ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler c r c - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler c r c o ___ Black-throated Green Warbler c r c - ___ Blackburnian Warbler c r c - ___ Pine Warbler o r o - ___ Prairie Warbler c r c - ___ Palm Warbler c r c r ___ Bay-breasted Warbler c r c - ___ Blackpoll Warbler c r c - ___ Cerulean Warbler r r r - ___ Black-and-white Warbler c r c r ___ American Redstart* c r c - ___ Prothonotary Warbler r r u - ___ Worm-eating Warbler r r u - ___ Ovenbird c r c - ___ Northern Waterthrush c r c r ___ Louisiana Waterthrush r r u - ___ Kentucky Warbler r r u - ___ Connecticut Warbler r r u - ___ Mourning Warbler o r o - ___ Common Yellowthroat* c c c r ___ Hooded Warbler r r u - ___ Wilson's Warbler c r u r ___ Canada Warbler c r c - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat* c c c r
TANAGERS, SPARROWS Sp S F W ___ Summer Tanager r r r - ___ Scarlet Tanager c r c - ___ Northern Cardinal* c c c c ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak c r o - ___ Blue Grosbeak* u u u r ___ Indigo Bunting* c c c - ___ Dickcissel r r r r ___ Rufous-sided Towhee* c c c r ___ American Tree Sparrow c - c c ___ Chipping Sparrow o o o o ___ Clay-colored Sparrow r - r - ___ Field Sparrow* c o c c ___ Vesper Sparrow c o o o ___ Savannah Sparrow* c r c r ___ Grasshopper Sparrow r - r - ___ Henslow's Sparrow r - r - ___ Sharp-tailed Sparrow - - r - ___ Fox Sparrow u - u u ___ Song Sparrow* c c c c ___ Lincoln's Sparrow r - r r ___ Swamp Sparrow* c c c c ___ White-throated Sparrow c r c c ___ White-crowned Sparrow c - c c ___ Lark Sparrow r - r - ___ Harris' Sparrow r - - - ___ Dark-eyed Junco c r c c ___ Lapland Longspur r - r o ___ Snow Bunting r - r r
BLACKBIRDS, FINCHES Sp S F W ___ Bobolink o r c - ___ Red-winged Blackbird* a a a c ___ Eastern Meadowlark o r o r ___ Rusty Blackbird c r c o ___ Brewer's Blackbird - - r r ___ Common Grackle* c c c o ___ Brown-headed Cowbird* c c c o ___ Orchard Oriole* o u r - ___ Baltimore Oriole* c o c r ___ Purple Finch o r c o ___ House Finch* o c c c ___ Red Crossbill - - - r ___ White-winged Crossbill - - - r ___ Common Redpoll r - r r ___ Pine Siskin r r o o ___ American Goldfinch* c c c c ___ Evening Grosbeak r - r r ___ House Sparrow c c c c
ACCIDENTALS - the following species are outside their normal range. The number following each name indicates the number of sightings of that species:
Black Rail (3)                              Black-backed Woodpecker (1)
Purple Gallinule (5)                        Scissor-tailed Flycatcher (1)
Sandhill Crane (2)                          Sprague's Pipit (1)
Black-necked Stilt (3)                      Golden-crowned Sparrow(1)
American Avocet (6)                         Yellow-headed Blackbird (2)
Spotted Redshank (2)                        Brewer's Blackbird (7)
Black-tailed Godwit (1)                     Boat-tailed Grackle (3)
Spoonbill Sandpiper (1)                     Parasitic Jaeger (1)
Black Skimmer (3)                           
Monk Parakeet (numerous records during late 1960's; now rare)

This list was compiled with the aid of John C. Miller, Prospect Park, Pennsylvania. For more information contact one of the two addresses below:
                      Refuge Manager
                      John Heinz NWR at Tinicum
                      Scott Plaza 2, Suite 104
                      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19113
                      Telephone: 215/521-0662

                      Visitor Contact Station
                      86th Street and Lindbergh Boulevard
                      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19153
                      Telephone: 215/365-3118
Hard of hearing or deaf visitors may call the Pennsylvania Relay Center at 1-800-654-5984 TDD/1-800-654-5988 voice.
John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum is one of over 500 refuges in the National Wildlife Refuge System administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The National Wildlife Refuge System is a network of lands and waters managed specifically for the protection of wildlife and wildlife habitat and represents the most comprehensive wildlife resource management program in the world. Units of the system stretch across the United States from northern Alaska to the Florida Keys, and include small islands in the Caribbean and South Pacific. The character of the refuges is as diverse as the nation itself.

The Service also manages National Fish Hatcheries, and provides Federal leadership in habitat protection, fish and wildlife research, technical assistance and the conservation and protection of migratory birds, certain marine mammals and threatened and endangered species.

This resource is based on the following source:
Miller, J.C.  1994.  Birds of John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum,
     Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
This resource should be cited as:
Miller, J.C.  1994.  Birds of John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum, 
     Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
     Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.
     (Version 22MAY98).

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