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Bird Checklists of the United States

Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge

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Suffolk, Virginia


Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, established by Congress in 1974, consists of almost 107,000 acres of forested wetlands. A primary concern at the refuge is to offer food, rest and protection for migratory birds. A variety of educational and recreational opportunities are offered to the public, including hiking, biking, photography, hunting, fishing and boating.

Birding is popular in the Swamp from April through June, but is best from mid-April to mid-May, the peak of the spring migration. As many as thirty-five species of warblers have been observed and provide the principal attraction.


Most birds are migratory, therefore their seasonal occurrence is coded as follows:

Season
s - Spring - March to May
S - Summer - June to August
F - Fall - September to November
W - Winter - December to February

Relative Abundance
a - abundant: a species which is very numerous
c - common: likely to be seen or heard in suitable habitat
u - uncommon: present, but not certain to be seen
o - occasional: seen only a few times during a season
r - rare: may be present but not every year
* - birds known to rest on or near the refuge
# - indicate threatened/endangered species


LOONS-GREBES s S F W ___ Common Loon o - r o ___ Pied-billed Grebe u - o u ___ Horned Grebe r - r o
CORMORANTS s S F W ___ Double-crested Cormorant u u u u
BITTERNS-HERONS-IBISES s S F W ___ American Bittern o o r r ___ Great Blue Heron* c c u u ___ Great Egret o o o o ___ Snowy Egret c o - - ___ Little Blue Heron* o o r - ___ Cattle Egret o o r - ___ Green-backed Heron* c c u - ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron* u u - - ___ Yellow-crowned Night-Heron* o o - - ___ White Ibis r r r -
SWANS, GEESE, DUCKS s S F W ___ Tundra Swan o - u u ___ Snow Goose - - o o ___ Brant - - r r ___ Canada Goose* u - u c ___ Wood Duck* c c c c ___ Green-winged Teal o - o o ___ American Black Duck* u u u u ___ Mallard* u u u u ___ Northern Pintail r - o o ___ Blue-winged Teal* r r r r ___ Gadwall - - o o ___ American Wigeon o - o o ___ Canvasback r - o o ___ Redhead o - - o ___ Ring-necked Duck u - u u ___ Lesser Scaup u - o o ___ Common Goldeneye - - o o ___ Bufflehead r - o o ___ Hooded Merganser* u o o u ___ Common Merganser o - r o ___ Red-breasted Merganser o - r o ___ Ruddy Duck r - o o
VULTURES-HAWKS-FALCONS s S F W ___ Black Vulture* u u u u ___ Turkey Vulture* c c c c ___ Osprey o - r - ___ Bald Eagle# r r r r ___ Northern Harrier r - r - ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk* o r c u ___ Cooper's Hawk* o r o o ___ Red-shouldered Hawk* c c c c ___ Broad-winged Hawk u - o - ___ Red-tailed Hawk* c c c c ___ American Kestrel* u u u u ___ Merlin o - r -
QUAIL-TURKEY s S F W ___ Wild Turkey r r r r ___ Northern Bobwhite* c c c c
RAILS-CRANES s S F W ___ King Rail* r r r r ___ Sora r r r r ___ Common Moorhen r r r r ___ American Coot o - o o
PLOVERS-SANDPIPERS s S F W ___ Semipalmated Plover r - r r ___ Killdeer u - u u ___ Greater Yellowlegs - - o o ___ Lesser Yellowlegs - - o o ___ Solitary Sandpiper u - r - ___ Spotted Sandpiper c u u - ___ Whimbrel r - - - ___ Sanderling - - o - ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper o - o - ___ Western Sandpiper - - - r ___ Least Sandpiper - - o o ___ Short-billed Dowitcher - - r - ___ Common Snipe o - o o ___ American Woodcock* c c c u
GULLS-TERNS-AUKS s S F W ___ Laughing Gull o o o o ___ Ring-billed Gull c u c c ___ Herring Gull u u u u ___ Great Black-backed Gull o - o o ___ Caspian Tern o - - - ___ Royal Tern o - - -
DOVES-CUCKOOS-OWLS-SWIFTS-HUMMINGBIRD s S F W ___ Rock Dove u u u u ___ Mourning Dove* c c c c ___ Black-billed Cuckoo o - - - ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo* c c o - ___ Eastern Screech-Owl* u u u u ___ Great Horned Owl* u u u u ___ Barred Owl* c c c c ___ Common Nighthawk r r r - ___ Chuck-will's-widow* u u o - ___ Whip-poor-will* u u o - ___ Chimney Swift c c u - ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird* c c u - ___ Belted Kingfisher* c c c c
WOODPECKERS-FLYCATCHERS s S F W ___ Red-headed Woodpecker* u u u o ___ Red-bellied Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker u o u u ___ Downy Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Hairy Woodpecker* u u u u ___ Northern Flicker* u u c c ___ Pileated Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee* c c u - ___ Acadian Flycatcher* c c u - ___ Eastern Phoebe* c c u r ___ Great Crested Flycatcher* c c c - ___ Eastern Kingbird* u u u -
LARKS-SWALLOWS-JAYS-CROWS s S F W ___ Purple Martin u u - - ___ Tree Swallow* u o u - ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow* u u o - ___ Bank Swallow o - - - ___ Cliff Swallow r r - - ___ Barn Swallow* c c c - ___ Blue Jay* c c c c ___ American Crow* c c c c ___ Fish Crow* u u u u
TITMICE-NUTHATCHES-WRENS s S F W ___ Black-capped Chickadee - - r r ___ Carolina Chickadee* c c c c ___ Tufted Titmouse* c c c c ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch* r - u u ___ White-breasted Nuthatch* c c c c ___ Brown-headed Nuthatch* u u u u ___ Brown Creeper* r - o o ___ Carolina Wren* c c c c ___ House Wren* u u o r ___ Winter Wren r - u u ___ Marsh Wren o - - -
KINGLETS-THRUSHES-THRASHERS s S F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet o - u u ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet o - u u ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher* c c u - ___ Eastern Bluebird* u u u o ___ Veery o - r - ___ Gray-cheeked Thrush o - r - ___ Swainson's Thrush o - r - ___ Hermit Thrush o - u c ___ Wood Thrush* c c u - ___ American Robin* u u c c ___ Gray Catbird* c c c c ___ Northern Mockingbird* u u u u ___ Brown Thrasher* u u u u
WAXWINGS-SHRIKES-STARLING s S F W ___ American Pipit o - o o ___ Cedar Waxwing c r u c ___ Loggerhead Shrike r - r r ___ European Starling u u u u
VIREOS-WOOD WARBLERS s S F W ___ White-eyed Vireo* c c c - ___ Solitary Vireo o - o - ___ Yellow-throated Vireo* u u u - ___ Warbling Vireo o - r - ___ Philadelphia Vireo o - o - ___ Red-eyed Vireo* a a c - ___ Blue-winged Warbler c - u - ___ Golden-winged Warbler o - - - ___ Tennessee Warbler u - u - ___ Nashville Warbler o - o - ___ Northern Parula* u u u - ___ Yellow Warbler* u u u - ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler o - u - ___ Magnolia Warbler o - o - ___ Cape May Warbler o - o - ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler u - u - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler c - u c ___ Black-throated Green Warbler* c c u - ___ Blackburnian Warbler o - o - ___ Yellow-throated Warbler* u u u - ___ Pine Warbler* c c c u ___ Prairie Warbler* c c c o ___ Palm Warbler u - u - ___ Bay-breasted Warbler o - o - ___ Blackpoll Warbler u - o - ___ Cerulean Warbler o - - - ___ Black-and-white Warbler* u c c - ___ American Redstart* c c c - ___ Prothonotary Warbler* a a c - ___ Worm-eating Warbler* u u u - ___ Swainson's Warbler* u u u - ___ Ovenbird* a a c - ___ Northern Waterthrush c u u - ___ Louisiana Waterthrush* c c c - ___ Kentucky Warbler* r r r - ___ Common Yellowthroat* c c c u ___ Hooded Warbler* c c c - ___ Wilson's Warbler r - r - ___ Canada Warbler o o o - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat* u u u -
TANAGERS-SPARROWS s S F W ___ Summer Tanager* u u u - ___ Scarlet Tanager* u r r - ___ Northern Cardinal* c c c c ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak u - u - ___ Blue Grosbeak* u u o - ___ Indigo Bunting* c c u - ___ Rufous-sided Towhee* c c c c ___ American Tree Sparrow r - o o ___ Chipping Sparrow* u u o r ___ Field Sparrow* u u u u ___ Fox Sparrow - - u u ___ Song Sparrow* u u u u ___ Swamp Sparrow u r o u ___ White-throated Sparrow u - c c ___ White-crowned Sparrow r - r r ___ Savannah Sparrow u - o u ___ Dark-eyed Junco o - c c
BLACKBIRDS-FINCHES s S F W ___ Bobolink o - r - ___ Red-winged Blackbird* u u c c ___ Eastern Meadowlark o o o r ___ Rusty Blackbird o - o o ___ Brewer's Blackbird - - r r ___ Boat-tailed Grackle o o o o ___ Common Grackle* c c c c ___ Brown-headed Cowbird* c c c c ___ Orchard Oriole* u u - - ___ Northern Oriole u u o r ___ Purple Finch - - o u ___ Pine Siskin o - u u ___ American Goldfinch* c u u c ___ Evening Grosbeak o - o u
For further information or to report unusual sightings, please contact:
                 Refuge Manager
                 Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge
                 P.O. Box 349
                 Suffolk, Virginia 23439-0349
                 Telephone: 804/986-3705
Hard of hearing or deaf visitors may call the Virginia Relay Center at 1-800-828-1120 TDD/1-800-828-1140 voice.
Great Dismal Swamp is one of over 500 refuges in the National Wildlife System administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The National Wildlife Refuge System is a network of lands and waters managed specifically for the protection of wildlife and wildlife habitat and represents the most comprehensive wildlife management program in the world. Units of the system stretch across the United States from northern Alaska to the Florida Keys and include small islands in the Caribbean and South Pacific. The character of the refuges is as diverse as the nation itself.

The Service also manages National Fish Hatcheries, and provides Federal leadership in habitat protection, fish and wildlife research, technical assistance and the conservation and protection of migratory birds, certain marine mammals and threatened and endangered species.


This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1994.  Birds of Great Dismal Swamp National 
     Wildlife Refuge, Virginia/North Carolina.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  
     Unpaginated.
This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1994.  Birds of Great Dismal Swamp National  
     Wildlife Refuge, Virginia/North Carolina.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  
     Unpaginated.  Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.  
     http://www.npwrc.usgs.govgrtswamp.htm 
     (Version 22MAY98).

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