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Bird Checklists of the United States

Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge

Turrell, Arkansas


Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge is located in Crittenden County in the delta of northeastern Arkansas. Established in 1961, Wapanocca is one of over 400 refuges in the National Wildlife Refuge system. Wapanocca has a rich wildlife heritage and is the former site of one of the most prestigious hunting clubs in the country. Today, Wapanocca's primary purpose is to provide habitat for thousands of migrating and wintering waterfowl, establishing an important link in the chain of refuges along the Mississippi Flyway.

Wapanocca's 5,500 acres lie just 5 miles west of the Mississippi River. The heart of the refuge is 600 acre Wapanocca Lake, a shallow old oxbow of the once meandering Mississippi River. Surrounding the lake is 1,200 acres of cypress and willow swamp. Together, the lake and swamp offer excellent feeding and resting habitat for waterfowl and diving birds. The other two-thirds of the refuge is equally divided between remnants of the once extensive bottomland hardwood forests and the croplands of the refuge's farm unit.

A visit to Wapanocca offers an excellent opportunity to view wildlife for the casual observer of nature and the experienced birder alike. Along the Nature Drive visitors can observe a wide variety of birds and other wildlife in different kinds of habitat - hardwood forest, cypress swamp, farmland, and open water. The observation Area at the edge of the lake is a favorite spot among visitors, especially during winter months when an abundance of waterfowl are using the refuge. A waterfowl sanctuary closed to the public during the period November 16 - February 28, is located Northeast of Ditch 8.

Refuge headquarters is located 1 mile east of Interstate 55 along state highway 42, 1/4 mile south of Turrell.


How to Use Your Checklist

The bird checklist was designed to be informative and simple to use. The list is arranged in the order established by the American Ornithological Union. This list was developed with the assistance of Tennessee Valley Audubon members R.B. "Willie" Williams and the late Mark Brown. Symbols which appear in this checklist represent the following:

Seasonal Appearance
Sp - Spring - March to May
S - Summer - June to August
F - Fall - September to November
W - Winter - December to February
* - Nests on refuge

Seasonal Abundance
a - abundant: a common species which is very numerous
c - common: certain to be seen in suitable habitat
u - uncommon: present but not certain to be seen
o - occasional: seen only a few times during a season
r - rare: seen at intervals of 2 to 5 years


LOONS Sp S F W ___ Common Loon o - o o
GREBES Sp S F W ___ Pied-billed Grebe c - c c ___ Horned Grebe o - o o
PELICANS AND THEIR ALLIES Sp S F W ___ American White Pelican o - o - ___ Double-crested Cormorant o - o o ___ Anhinga* o o r -
HERONS, EGRETS AND ALLIES Sp S F W ___ American Bittern r - r - ___ Least Bittern r r r - ___ Great Blue Heron* u u u u ___ Great Egret* u u u - ___ Snowy Egret o o o - ___ Little Blue Heron u u u - ___ Cattle Egret u u u - ___ Green-backed Heron u u u - ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron u u u - ___ Yellow-crowned Night-Heron u u u -
IBISES, SPOONBILL, STORK Sp S F W ___ Glossy Ibis - - r - ___ Wood Stork - - r -
WATERFOWL Sp S F W ___ Greater White-Fronted Goose o - o o ___ Snow Goose u - u o ___ Canada Goose* c o c a ___ Wood Duck* c c c c ___ American Black Duck c - c c ___ Green-winged Teal c u c c ___ Mallard* a o a a ___ Northern Pintail c - c c ___ Blue-winged Teal c u c u ___ Northern Shoveler c - u c ___ Gadwall c - c c ___ American Wigeon o - c c ___ Canvasback u - u u ___ Redhead u - u u ___ Ring-necked Duck c - c c ___ Greater Scaup r - r r ___ Lesser Scaup o - o o ___ Oldsquaw r - - r ___ Common Goldeneye o - o u ___ Bufflehead c - c c ___ Hooded Merganser* c o c c ___ Common Merganser r - r r ___ Red-breasted Merganser r - r r ___ Ruddy Duck c - c c
VULTURES, HAWKS, AND ALLIES Sp S F W ___ Black Vulture u u u o ___ Turkey Vulture u u u o ___ Osprey o - o - ___ Mississippi Kite o o - - ___ Bald Eagle* c o o c ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk r - r r ___ Cooper's Hawk r r r r ___ Red-shouldered Hawk o o o o ___ Broad-winged Hawk u u u - ___ Red-tailed Hawk c u c c ___ Rough-legged Hawk - - - r ___ Golden Eagle r - - r ___ Marsh Hawk u - u u ___ American Kestrel u r u u ___ Peregrine Falcon - - r -
GALLINACEOUS BIRDS (QUAIL, TURKEY, AND ALLIES) Sp S F W ___ Wild Turkey* u u u u ___ Northern Bobwhite* u u u u
RAILS, GALLINULES, COOTS, AND CRANES Sp S F W ___ King Rail u u u - ___ Virginia Rail r - r - ___ Sora r - r - ___ Purple Gallinule r r r - ___ Common Gallinule u u u - ___ American Coot c r c c
SHOREBIRDS Sp S F W ___ Black-bellied Plover r - r - ___ Lesser Golden Plover r - u - ___ Semipalmated Plover u - u - ___ Killdeer* c c c u ___ American Golden Plover u - u - ___ Greater Yellowlegs u - u - ___ Lesser Yellowlegs u - u - ___ Solitary Sandpiper u - u - ___ Willet r - r - ___ Spotted Sandpiper u - u - ___ Upland Sandpiper u - r - ___ Sanderling r - u - ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper u - u - ___ Western Sandpiper r - c r ___ Least Sandpiper c - c u ___ Pectoral Sandpiper u - u - ___ Dunlin r - u r ___ Short-billed Dowitcher c - c - ___ Long-billed Dowitcher o - o - ___ Common Snipe c - c u ___ American Woodcock u r u u ___ Wilson's Phalarope r - - - ___ Franklin's Gull - - r - ___ Ring-billed Gull o - o o ___ Herring Gull o - o o ___ Caspian Tern r - u - ___ Common Tern o o o - ___ Forster's Tern o - o - ___ Least Tern o o o - ___ Black Tern r o u -
PIGEONS, DOVES Sp S F W ___ Rock Dove u u u u ___ Mourning Dove* c c c c
CUCKOOS Sp S F W ___ Black-billed Cuckoo r - r - ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo* c c c -
OWLS Sp S F W ___ Barn Owl o o o o ___ Eastern Screech-Owl* c c c c ___ Great Horned Owl* u u u u ___ Barred Owl* c c c c ___ Short-eared Owl r - r r
NIGHTJARS Sp S F W ___ Common Nighthawk c c u - ___ Chuck-will's-widow o - o - ___ Whip-poor-will u - u -
SWIFTS, HUMMINGBIRDS Sp S F W ___ Chimney Swift* c c c - ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird c c u -
KINGFISHERS Sp S F W ___ Belted Kingfisher* c c c u
WOODPECKERS Sp S F W ___ Red-headed Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Red-bellied Woodpecker* c c c u ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker c - c c ___ Downy Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Hairy Woodpecker* u u u u ___ Northern Flicker* c c c c ___ Pileated Woodpecker* r r r r
FLYCATCHERS Sp S F W ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher r - r - ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee* c c c - ___ Acadian Flycatcher* c c u - ___ Willow Flycatcher o - - - ___ Least Flycatcher r - r - ___ Eastern Phoebe c r c r ___ Great Crested Flycatcher* c c c - ___ Eastern Kingbird* c c u -
LARKS Sp S F W ___ Horned Lark* c c c c
MARTINS AND SWALLOWS Sp S F W ___ Purple Martin* c c c - ___ Tree Swallow c - c - ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow c u c - ___ Bank Swallow u - u - ___ Cliff Swallow r - r - ___ Barn Swallow* c c c -
JAYS AND CROWS Sp S F W ___ Blue Jay* a a a a ___ American Crow u u u u ___ Fish Crow o o o -
CHICKADEES AND TITMICE Sp S F W ___ Carolina Chickadee* c c c c ___ Tufted Titmouse* c c c c
NUTHATCHES Sp S F W ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch u - u r ___ White-breasted Nuthatch o o o o
CREEPERS Sp S F W ___ Brown Creeper u - u u
WRENS Sp S F W ___ Carolina Wren* c c c c ___ Bewick's Wren r r r r ___ House Wren r - r r ___ Winter Wren r - o o
KINGLETS AND GNATCATCHERS Sp S F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet c - c u ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet c - c c ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher* c c u -
BLUEBIRDS, THRUSHES, AND ROBIN Sp S F W ___ Veery r - r - ___ Eastern Bluebird u u u u ___ Gray-cheecked Thrush u - u - ___ Swainson's Thrush c - c - ___ Hermit Thrush u - u u ___ Wood Thrush* c c c - ___ American Robin* a c a a
THRASHERS Sp S F W ___ Gray Catbird* c u c - ___ Northern Mockingbird* c c c c ___ Brown Thrasher* c c c c
PIPITS Sp S F W ___ American Pipit u - u -
WAXWINGS Sp S F W ___ Cedar Waxwing c - o u
STARLING Sp S F W ___ European Starling* c c c c
SHRIKE Sp S F W ___ Loggerhead Shrike* u u u u
VIREOS Sp S F W ___ White-eyed Vireo* c c c - ___ Yellow-throated Vireo* c u u - ___ Warbling Vireo o o o - ___ Philadelphia Vireo u - u - ___ Red-eyed Vireo* c c c -
WARBLERS Sp S F W ___ Blue-winged Warbler r - r - ___ Golden-winged Warbler r - r - ___ Tennessee Warbler a - c - ___ Orange-crowned Warbler r - r - ___ Nashville Warbler c - c - ___ Northern Parula* c c c - ___ Yellow Warbler c - u - ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler c - c - ___ Magnolia Warbler c - c - ___ Cape May Warbler u - u - ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler u - u - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler c - c c ___ Black-throated Green Warbler c - c - ___ Blackburnian Warbler o - o - ___ Yellow-throated Warbler* c c c - ___ Pine Warbler o o o o ___ Prairie Warbler* u r u - ___ Palm Warbler c - r - ___ Bay-breasted Warbler c - c - ___ Blackpoll Warbler c - r - ___ Cerulean Warbler* c c c - ___ Black-and-white Warbler o o o - ___ American Redstart* c c c - ___ Prothonotary Warbler* c c c - ___ Worm-eating Warbler o - o - ___ Swainson's Warbler* u u u - ___ Ovenbird c - c - ___ Northern Waterthrush c - c - ___ Louisiana Waterthrush c u r - ___ Kentucky Warbler* c c c - ___ Connecticut Warbler ___ Mourning Warbler u - r - ___ Common Yellowthroat* c c c r ___ Hooded Warbler* c c c - ___ Wilson's Warbler u - u - ___ Canada Warbler u - u - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat* c c c -
TANAGERS Sp S F W ___ Summer Tanager* c c c - ___ Scarlet Tanager u - u -
NEW WORLD FINCHES Sp S F W ___ Northern Cardinal* c c c c ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak c - c - ___ Blue Grosbeak - r - r ___ Indigo Bunting* - c c c ___ Painted Bunting - r r - ___ Dickcissel* c c u - ___ Evening Grosbeak - - - r
SPARROWS Sp S F W ___ Rufous-sided Towhee* c u c c ___ Chipping Sparrow u - u - ___ Field Sparrow* c c c c ___ Vesper Sparrow u - u r ___ Lark Sparrow r - - - ___ Savannah Sparrow u - u c ___ Grasshopper Sparrow* u u u - ___ Henslow's Sparrow ___ Le Conte's Sparrow r - r r ___ Fox Sparrow u - u u ___ Song Sparrow c - c c ___ Lincoln's Sparrow c - c c ___ Swamp Sparrow c - c c ___ White-throated Sparrow c - c c ___ White-crowned Sparrow u - u u ___ Dark-eyed Junco c - c c ___ Lapland Longspur - - - r
BLACKBIRDS, GRACKLES, COWBIRDS, AND ORIOLES Sp S F W ___ Bobolink u - r - ___ Red-winged Blackbird* a a a a ___ Eastern Meadowlark* c c c c ___ Yellow-headed Blackbird r - - - ___ Rusty Blackbird - - - c ___ Brewer's Blackbird - - - o ___ Common Grackle* a a a a ___ Brown-headed Cowbird* a c a a ___ Orchard Oriole* c c u - ___ Northern Oriole* c c u -
OLD WORLD FINCHES Sp S F W ___ Purple Finch u - u c ___ Pine Siskin - - - r ___ American Goldfinch* c u u c ___ Evening Grosbeak r - r r
Old World Sparrows Sp S F W ___ House Sparrow* a a a a
NOTES AND COMMENTS
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For more information please contact:

                      United States Department of the Interior
                      Fish and Wildlife Service
                      Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge
                      P.O. Box 279
                      Turrell, Arkansas 72384

This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1992.  Birds of Wapanocca National Wildlife 
     Refuge, California.  U.S. Fish And Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1992.  Birds of Wapanocca National Wildlife 
     Refuge, California.  U.S. Fish And Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
     Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.
     http://www.npwrc.usgs.govwapanoc.htm 
     (Version 02MAR00).

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