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Bird Checklists of the United States

Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge

Folkston, Georgia


Ethics for Birdwatching

Take care not to disturb nesting birds. This exposes eggs and young to extreme temperatures and predation.

Disturb wintering wildlife as little as possible, particularly during critical feeding and resting periods. They need all of their energy reserves to withstand the stresses of harsh weather and migration.

Do not litter. Many birds die when they become entangled in fishing lines, 6-pack rings and other trash, or when they mistake garbage for food.

How to use your checklist

The bird checklist was designed to be informative and simple to use. The list is arranged in the order established by the American Ornithological Union.

This checklist includes 234 species of birds and is based on observations by refuge personnel and visiting ornithologists. If you should find an unlisted species, please let us know at Refuge Headquarters. We will appreciate your help in updating our records.


Symbols which appear in this checklist represent the following:

Seasonal appearance

Sp - Spring - March to May
S - Summer - June to August
F - Fall - September to November
W - Winter - December to February

Seasonal abundance

a - abundant: a common species which is very numerous
c - common: certain to be seen in suitable habitat
u - uncommon: present but not certain to be seen
o - occasional: seen only a few times during a season
r - rare: seen at intervals of 2 to 5 years
* - known or suspected to have nested on refuge or known to nest locally


LOONS Sp S F W ___ Common Loon r - r r
GREBES Sp S F W ___ Pied-billed Grebe c r c c ___ Horned Grebe o - o o
PELICANS AND ALLIES Sp S F W ___ Double-crested Cormorant o r o o ___ Anhinga* c c c c
HERONS, EGRETS AND ALLIES Sp S F W ___ American Bittern u u u c ___ Least Bittern* o o r - ___ Great Blue Heron* c c c c ___ Great Egret* c c c c ___ Snowy Egret* u u u o ___ Little Blue Heron* c c c c ___ Tricolored Heron* o o o o ___ Cattle Egret* c c c - ___ Green Heron* c c c o ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron* c o c c ___ Yellow-crowned Night-Heron u u u u
IBISES, SPOONBILL, STORK Sp S F W ___ White Ibis* c a a c ___ Glossy Ibis r - r r ___ Wood Stork* o c c o
WATERFOWL Sp S F W ___ Canada Goose o - o o ___ Wood Duck* c c c c ___ Green-winged Teal c - c c ___ American Black Duck o - o o ___ Mallard c - c c ___ Northern Pintail u - u u ___ Blue-winged Teal u u u o ___ Northern Shoveler u - u u ___ Gadwall o - o o ___ American Wigeon u - u u ___ Canvasback r - r r ___ Redhead o - o o ___ Ring-necked Duck c - c c ___ Lesser Scaup u - u u ___ Common Goldeneye r - r r ___ Bufflehead r - r r ___ Hooded Merganser* c r c c ___ Red-breasted Merganser r - r r ___ Ruddy Duck o - o o
VULTURES, HAWKS AND ALLIES Sp S F W ___ Black Vulture* c c c c ___ Turkey Vulture* c c c c ___ Osprey* u u r r ___ American Swallow-tailed Kite u u u - ___ Bald Eagle o - o o ___ Northern Harrier u - u u ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk o - o o ___ Cooper's Hawk o r o o ___ Red-shouldered Hawk* c c c c ___ Broad-winged Hawk r - r - ___ Red-tailed Hawk* u r u u ___ Golden Eagle r - r r ___ American Kestrel* c o c c ___ Merlin r - r r ___ Peregrine Falcon r - r r
GALLINACEOUS BIRDS Sp S F W ___ Wild Turkey* c u c u ___ Northern Bobwhite* c c c c
RAILS, GALLINULES, COOTS AND CRANES Sp S F W ___ King Rail* r r r r ___ Virginia Rail r - r - ___ Sora r - r - ___ Purple Gallinule* u u u u ___ Common Moorhen* u u u u ___ American Coot u - u u ___ Sandhill Crane* c c c c
SHOREBIRDS Sp S F W ___ Killdeer c - c c ___ Greater Yellowlegs u - u o ___ Lesser Yellowlegs u - u o ___ Solitary Sandpiper o - o - ___ Willet r - r - ___ Spotted Sandpiper u - u o ___ Sanderling o - o o ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper o - o o ___ Western Sandpiper r - r r ___ Dunlin r - r - ___ Short-billed Dowitcher o - o o ___ Common Snipe c - c c ___ American Woodcock u r u u ___ Herring Gull r - r r ___ Black Tern r r r -
PIGEONS, DOVES Sp S F W ___ Mourning Dove* c c c c ___ Common Ground-Dove* c c c c
CUCKOOS Sp S F W ___ Black-billed Cuckoo r - r - ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo* c c c -
OWLS Sp S F W ___ Eastern Screech-Owl* u u u u ___ Great Horned Owl u u u u ___ Barred Owl* c c c c
GOATSUCKERS Sp S F W ___ Common Nighthawk* c c c - ___ Chuck-will's-widow* c c c - ___ Whip-poor-will o - o r
SWIFTS, HUMMINGBIRDS Sp S F W ___ Chimney Swift c c c - ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird* u u u -
KINGFISHERS Sp S F W ___ Belted Kingfisher* c u c c
WOODPECKERS Sp S F W ___ Red-headed Woodpecker* c u c u ___ Red-bellied Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker c - c c ___ Downy Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Hairy Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Red-cockaded Woodpecker* u u u u ___ Northern Flicker* c c c c ___ Pileated Woodpecker* c c c c
FLYCATCHERS Sp S F W ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee* c c c - ___ Acadian Flycatcher* u u u - ___ Eastern Phoebe c - c c ___ Great Crested Flycatcher* c c c - ___ Eastern Kingbird* c c c -
MARTINS AND SWALLOWS Sp S F W ___ Purple Martin* r u c o ___ Tree Swallow c - a c ___ Barn Swallow c u c -
JAYS AND CROWS Sp S F W ___ Blue Jay* c c c c ___ American Crow* u u u u ___ Fish Crow* c c c c
CHICKADEES AND TITMICE Sp S F W ___ Carolina Chickadee* u u u u ___ Tufted Titmouse* c c c c
NUTHATCHES Sp S F W ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch r - - r ___ White-breasted Nuthatch r r r r ___ Brown-headed Nuthatch* c c c c
CREEPERS Sp S F W ___ Brown Creeper o - o o
WRENS Sp S F W ___ Carolina Wren* c c c c ___ Bewick's Wren r - r r ___ House Wren u - u u ___ Winter Wren u - u u ___ Sedge Wren u - u u ___ Marsh Wren o - o o
KINGLETS AND GNATCATCHERS Sp S F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet u - u o ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet a - a a ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher* u u u o
THRUSHES Sp S F W ___ Eastern Bluebird* c c c c ___ Veery u - u - ___ Gray-cheecked Thrush r - r - ___ Swainson's Thrush r - r - ___ Hermit Thrush u - u u ___ Wood Thrush* u u u - ___ American Robin c - a a
THRASHERS Sp S F W ___ Gray Catbird* c c c c ___ Northern Mockingbird* c c c c ___ Brown Thrasher* c c c c
STARLINGS Sp S F W ___ European Starling o o o o
PIPITS Sp S F W ___ American Pipit o - o o
WAXWINGS Sp S F W ___ Cedar Waxwing c - u c
SHRIKES Sp S F W ___ Loggerhead Shrike* c c c c
VIREOS Sp S F W ___ White-eyed Vireo* c c c u ___ Solitary Vireo u - u u ___ Yellow-throated Vireo* r r r - ___ Red-eyed Vireo* u u u -
WARBLERS Sp S F W ___ Blue-winged Warbler r - o - ___ Golden-winged Warbler o - o - ___ Orange-crowned Warbler u - u u ___ Northern Parula* c c c r ___ Yellow Warbler u - u - ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler - - r - ___ Magnolia Warbler r - u - ___ Cape May Warbler u - u - ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler r - r - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler a - a a ___ Black-throated Green Warbler r - r - ___ Blackburnian Warbler u - u - ___ Yellow-throated Warbler* c c c c ___ Pine Warbler* c u c c ___ Prairie Warbler u - u o ___ Palm Warbler c - c c ___ Blackpoll Warbler u - u - ___ Cerulean Warbler r - r - ___ Black-and-white Warbler u o u o ___ American Redstart c r c - ___ Prothonotary Warbler* c c c - ___ Worm-eating Warbler u - u r ___ Swainson's Warbler* r r r - ___ Ovenbird u - u - ___ Northern Waterthrush r - r - ___ Louisiana Waterthrush o r o - ___ Kentucky Warbler o - o - ___ Connecticut Warbler o - r - ___ Common Yellowthroat* c u c c ___ Hooded Warbler u u u - ___ Canada Warbler r - r - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat r - r -
TANAGERS Sp S F W ___ Summer Tanager* u u u - ___ Scarlet Tanager r r - -
NEW WORLD FINCHES Sp S F W ___ Northern Cardinal c c c c ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak r - r - ___ Blue Grosbeak r r r - ___ Indigo Bunting u o u - ___ Painted Bunting o - - -
SPARROWS Sp S F W ___ Rufous-sided Towhee* c c c c ___ Bachman's Sparrow* c c c c ___ Chipping Sparrow u - u u ___ Field Sparrow u - u u ___ Vesper Sparrow u - u u ___ Savannah Sparrow u - u u ___ Grasshopper Sparrow o - o o ___ Henslow's Sparrow o - o o ___ Fox Sparrow u - u u ___ Song Sparrow c - c c ___ Swamp Sparrow c - c c ___ White-throated Sparrow c - c c ___ Dark-eyed Junco r - - r
BLACKBIRDS, GRACKLES, COWBIRDS AND ORIOLES Sp S F W ___ Bobolink r - r - ___ Red-winged Blackbird* c c c c ___ Eastern Meadowlark* c c c c ___ Rusty Blackbird u - u u ___ Brewer's Blackbird o - o o ___ Boat-tailed Grackle r - r r ___ Common Grackle* c c c c ___ Brown-headed Cowbird o - o o ___ Orchard Oriole* u u u - ___ Northern Oriole r - r r
FINCHES Sp S F W ___ Purple Finch u - u u ___ Pine Siskin r - r r ___ American Goldfinch c - c c
WEAVER FINCHES Sp S F W ___ House Sparrow* r r r r
The following species are of very rare or accidental occurence:

American White Pelican               Laughing Gull
Brown Pelican                        Arctic Tern 
Roseate Spoonbill                    Forster's Tern
Tundra Swan                          Rock Dove
Snow Goose                           Barn Owl
Eurasian Wigeon                      Ivory-billed Woodpecker (formerly)
Greater Scaup                        Vermilion Flycatcher
Common Merganser                     Western Kingbird
Mississippi Kite                     Gray Kingbird
Rough-legged Hawk                    Bachman's Warbler
Yellow Rail                          American Tree Sparrow
Clapper Rail                         Lark Sparrow
Limpkin                              Le Conte's Sparrow
Semipalmated Plover                  House Finch
Whimbrel

For further information contact:

                       Refuge Manager
                       Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge
                       Route 2, Box 3330
                       Folkston, Georgia 31537
                       Telephone: 912/496-7366

This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1994.  Birds of Okefenokee National Wildlife 
     Refuge.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Refuge.  Unpaginated.
This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1994.  Birds of Okefenokee National Wildlife 
     Refuge.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Refuge.  Unpaginated.  Jamestown, ND: 
     Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.
     http://www.npwrc.usgs.govokefeno.htm 
     (Version 22MAY98).

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