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Bird Checklists of the United States

Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge

Boynton Beach, Florida


Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge includes 145,635 acres of Everglades habitat in Palm Beach County, Florida. Tree islands interspersed with stands of sawgrass, wet prairies and sloughs cover most of the refuge.

The headquarters entrance, located 12 miles west of Boynton Beach, has a combined management and wildlife viewing area that is an excellent vantage point for watching waders, waterfowl and other birds. The Marsh Trail is located here. The Cypress Swamp Boardwalk offers an opportunity to see woodpeckers, owls, and songbirds. The 5.5 mile canoe trail provides a closer look at the Everglades and its wildlife. For further information contact the Visitor Center at (407) 734-8303.

Ethics of Birdwatching
Take care not to disturb nesting birds, exposing eggs and young to extreme temperatures and predation.

Disturb wintering wildlife as little as possible, particularly during critical feeding and resting periods. They need all of their energy reserves to withstand the stresses of harsh weather and migration.

Do not litter. Many birds die when they become entangled in fishing lines, 6-pack rings and other trash, or when they mistake garbage for food.

How to use your checklist
The bird checklist was designed to be informative and simple to use. The list is arranged in the order established by the American Ornithological Union.

This checklist includes 250 species of birds and is based on observations by refuge personnel and local bird authorities. If you should find an unlisted species, please let us know at Refuge Headquarters. We will appreciate you help in updating our records.


Symbols which appear in this checklist represent the following:

Seasonal appearance
Sp - Spring - March to May
S - Summer - June to August
F - Fall - September to November
W - Winter - December to February

Seasonal abundance
a - abundant: (a common species which is very numerous)
c - common: (certain to be seen in suitable habitat)
u - uncommon: (present but not certain to be seen)
o - occasional: (seen only a few times during a season)
r - rare: (seen at intervals of 2 to 5 years)
x - accidental: (out of normal species range)
* - nests on the refuge


GREBES W Sp S F ___ Common Loon - r - r ___ Eared Grebe x - - - ___ Horned Grebe x - - - ___ Pied-billed Grebe* c c u c
PELICANS AND ALLIES W Sp S F ___ American White Pelican r r - - ___ Brown Pelican - - - x ___ Double-crested Cormorant* u u u u ___ Anhinga* a a a a ___ Magnificent Frigatebird - - - x
HERONS, EGRETS AND ALLIES W Sp S F ___ American Bittern u u o u ___ Least Bittern* u u u u ___ Great Blue Heron* a a a a ___ Great Egret* a a a a ___ Snowy Egret* c c u c ___ Little Blue Heron* a a a a ___ Cattle Egret* a a a a ___ Green-backed Heron* a a a a ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron* c c c c ___ Tricolored Heron* c c c c ___ Yellow-crowned Night-Heron* u u u u
IBISES, SPOONBILL, STORK W Sp S F ___ Glossy Ibis* c u u c ___ White Ibis* c c c c ___ Roseate Spoonbill o o o o ___ Wood Stork* c c u c ___ Scarlet Ibis x - - -
WATERFOWL W Sp S F ___ Fulvous Whistling-Duck c u u c ___ Snow Goose x - - - ___ Wood Duck* c u u c ___ Green-winged Teal c - - c ___ American Black Duck r r - - ___ Mottled Duck* a a a a ___ Mallard r r - r ___ Masked Duck x - - x ___ Northern Pintail u u - u ___ Blue-winged Teal a o o a ___ Northern Shoveler u - - u ___ Gadwall o - - o ___ American Wigeon u - - u ___ Canvasback r - - r ___ White-cheeked Pintail x - - - ___ Cinnamon Teal x - - - ___ Common Merganser x - - - ___ Red-breasted Merganser o o - o ___ Redhead r r - r ___ Ring-necked Duck a u - a ___ Greater Scaup r - - r ___ Tundra Swan x - - - ___ Lesser Scaup o - - o ___ Common Goldeneye x - - - ___ Bufflehead r r - r ___ Hooded Merganser u r - u ___ Ruddy Duck o r - o
VULTURES, HAWKS AND ALLIES W Sp S F ___ Black Vulture* a a c a ___ Turkey Vulture* a a c a ___ Osprey* c c c c ___ Bald Eagle o o r o ___ American Swallow-tailed Kite - u r - ___ Crested Caracara - - - x ___ Short-tailed Hawk o - - o ___ Northern Harrier c c - c ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk c c - - ___ Snail Kite* u u u u ___ Cooper's Hawk o o o o ___ Red-shouldered Hawk* a a a a ___ Broad-winged Hawk o - - o ___ Swainson's Hawk - - - x ___ Red-tailed Hawk u u u u ___ American Kestrel c c - c ___ Merlin u u - u ___ Peregrine Falcon r r - r
GALLINACEOUS BIRDS W Sp S F (Quail, Turkey and Allies) ___ Wild Turkey - - - x ___ Northern Bobwhite* u u u u
RAILS, GALLINULES, COOTS AND CRANES W Sp S F ___ Black Rail r - - r ___ Limpkin* c c c c ___ Sandhill Crane* u u u u ___ Virginia Rail o o - o ___ Yellow Rail r - - r ___ King Rail* c c c c ___ Sora u u - u ___ Purple Gallinule* c c c c ___ Common Moorhen* a a a a ___ American Coot* a a r a
SHOREBIRDS W Sp S F ___ Killdeer* c c c c ___ Greater Yellowlegs u c u c ___ Lesser Yellowlegs u c u c ___ Solitary Sandpiper r u u u ___ Black-bellied Plover u u o u ___ Semipalmated Plover r u u u ___ Long-billed Dowitcher o u - u ___ Least Sandpiper u a c a ___ Spotted Sandpiper u c o c ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper - c c c ___ White-rumped Sandpiper - u - r ___ Willet r - - r ___ Stilt Sandpiper - u - u ___ Marbled Godwit - - - x ___ Western Sandpiper u c c c ___ Pectoral Sandpiper - u u u ___ Red Knot - - - x ___ Dunlin - - - r ___ Short-billed Dowitcher - o u c ___ Common Snipe c c - c ___ American Woodcock r - - r ___ American Avocet - o - o ___ Black-necked Stilt* - c c c
GULLS AND TERNS W Sp S F ___ Black Skimmer u u u u ___ Ring-billed Gull u u - u ___ Black Tern - - u u ___ Least Tern - u u o ___ Bonaparte's Gull x - - - ___ Laughing Gull u u u u ___ Caspian Tern u u - u ___ Herring Gull o o - o ___ Forster's Tern o o o o ___ Gull-billed Tern r o o o
PIGEONS, DOVES W Sp S F ___ Mourning Dove* a a a a ___ Common Ground-Dove* c c c c ___ White-winged Dove r r r r
CUCKOOS W Sp S F ___ Black-billed Cuckoo - - - x ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo* - c c c ___ Smooth-billed Ani* c c c c
OWLS W Sp S F ___ Burrowing Owl x - - x ___ Barn Owl* u u u u ___ Short-eared Owl r r - r ___ Eastern Screech-Owl* c c c c ___ Great Horned Owl* u u u u ___ Barred Owl* o o o o
GOATSUCKERS W Sp S F ___ Common Nighthawk* - c c c ___ Chuck-will's-widow* u c c c ___ Whip-poor-will u u - u
SWIFTS, HUMMINGBIRDS W Sp S F ___ Chimney Swift - r o o ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird u u u -
KINGFISHERS W Sp S F ___ Belted Kingfisher a c r a
WOODPECKERS W Sp S F ___ Red-headed Woodpecker - - - x ___ Red-bellied Woodpecker* a a a a ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker u u - u ___ Downy Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Hairy Woodpecker r - - - ___ Northern Flicker* u u u u ___ Pileated Woodpecker* c c c c
FLYCATCHERS W Sp S F ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee - - - u ___ Cassin's Kingbird x x - - ___ Gray Kingbird - r u u ___ Least Flycatcher u - - u ___ Western Kingbird r - - r ___ Willow Flycatcher - - - x ___ Couch's Kingbird x - - - ___ Fork-tailed Flycatcher - - x - ___ Acadian Flycatcher - - - o ___ Eastern Phoebe a c - a ___ Great Crested Flycatcher* r c u c ___ Eastern Kingbird* - c u a ___ Scissor-tailed Flycatcher r - - r
LARKS W Sp S F ___ Horned Lark - x - -
MARTINS AND SWALLOWS W Sp S F ___ Purple Martin - u u u ___ Tree Swallow a a o a ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow c c - c ___ Barn Swallow r a a a ___ Cliff Swallow - - - o ___ Bank Swallow - u u u
JAYS AND CROWS W Sp S F ___ Blue Jay* c c c c ___ Fish Crow c c c c
WRENS W Sp S F ___ Carolina Wren* c c c c ___ House Wren c c - c ___ Sedge Wren r r - r ___ Marsh Wren c c - c
KINGLETS AND GNATCATCHERS W Sp S F ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet o o - o ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher a c o a
BLUEBIRDS, THRUSHES AND ROBIN W Sp S F ___ Eastern Bluebird x - - - ___ Veery - u - u ___ Gray-cheecked Thrush - r - u ___ Swainson's Thrush - r - u ___ Hermit Thrush r r - r ___ American Robin a c - u
THRASHERS W Sp S F ___ Gray Catbird a a - a ___ Northern Mockingbird* a a a a ___ Brown Thrasher* u u u u
PIPITS W Sp S F ___ American Pipit r - r r
WAXWINGS W Sp S F ___ Cedar Waxwing c c - u
STARLINGS W Sp S F ___ European Starling* c c c c
SHRIKES W Sp S F ___ Loggerhead Shrike* c c c c
VIREOS W Sp S F ___ Bell's Vireo x - - x ___ Black-whiskered Vireo - r r r ___ Philadelphia Vireo - - - r ___ White-eyed Vireo* c c c c ___ Yellow-throated Vireo r r - u ___ Red-eyed Vireo - u - c ___ Solitary Vireo u u - u
WARBLERS W Sp S F ___ American Redstart u a u a ___ Bay-breasted Warbler - - - o ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler r c - c ___ Black-throated Green Warbler r - - o ___ Ovenbird c a - a ___ Palm Warbler a a - a ___ Blackburnian Warbler - - - o ___ Blackpoll Warbler - u - c ___ Blue-winged Warbler - - - x ___ Canada Warbler - - - x ___ Cape May Warbler - c - c ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler - - - u ___ Hooded Warbler - u - u ___ Magnolia Warbler r u - c ___ Northern Parula u a o a ___ Northern Waterthrush u c - a ___ Prairie Warbler c c u a ___ Swainson's Warbler - r - r ___ Golden-winged Warbler - - - r ___ Tennessee Warbler - - - u ___ Orange-crowned Warbler c - - c ___ Nashville Warbler r o - o ___ Yellow Warbler r u - u ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler a a - a ___ Yellow-throated Warbler u u u c ___ Pine Warbler u r - u ___ Black-and-white Warbler c c - c ___ Prothonotary Warbler - o - u ___ Louisiana Waterthrush - o o - ___ Kentucky Warbler - - - r ___ Common Yellowthroat* a a c a ___ Yellow-breasted Chat o o - u ___ Worm-eating Warbler - u - u ___ Wilson's Warbler r r - o
TANAGERS W Sp S F ___ Summer Tanager r u - u ___ Scarlet Tanager - - - u
NEW WORLD FINCHES W Sp S F ___ Northern Cardinal* a a a a ___ Blue Grosbeak r r - r ___ Indigo Bunting c c - c ___ Painted Bunting c c - c ___ Dickcissel x - - - ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak - o - u
SPARROWS W Sp S F ___ Rufous-sided Towhee c c c c ___ Chipping Sparrow r r - r ___ Vesper Sparrow - - - x ___ Savannah Sparrow a c - a ___ Lincoln's Sparrow o - - - ___ Swamp Sparrow a a - a ___ Clay-colored Sparrow x - - - ___ Grasshopper Sparrow u u - u ___ Lark Sparrow - - - x
BLACKBIRDS, GRACKLES, COWBIRDS AND ORIOLES W Sp S F ___ Red-winged Blackbird* a a a a ___ Eastern Meadowlark* u u u u ___ Rusty Blackbird r - - - ___ Common Grackle* a a a a ___ Brown-headed Cowbird u u - u ___ Orchard Oriole - r r - ___ Northern Oriole r u - u ___ Boat-tailed Grackle* a a a a ___ Bobolink - c - a ___ Spot-breasted Oriole - x - - ___ Yellow-headed Blackbird o - - -
OLD WORLD FINCHES W Sp S F ___ Pine Siskin r - - - ___ American Goldfinch c - - -
WEAVER FINCHES W Sp S F ___ House Sparrow* u u u u
For additional information contact:
                      Refuge Manager
                      Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee NWR
                      10216 Lee Road
                      Boynton Beach, Florida 33437-4796 
                      Telephone: 407/732-3684

This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1994.  Birds of Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee 
     National Wildlife Refuge.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1994.  Birds of Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee 
     National Wildlife Refuge.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
     Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.
     http://www.npwrc.usgs.govloxahatc.htm 
     (Version 22MAY98).

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