USGS - science for a changing world

Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

  Home About NPWRC Our Science Staff Employment Contacts Common Questions About the Site

Bird Checklists of the United States

Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge

small state map showing location

Crystal River, Florida



Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge is located on the Gulf Coast of Florida, in Citrus and Hernando Counties. It comprises 30,500 acres of coastal saltwater bays, estuaries and brackish marshes. The office is 4 miles south of Homosassa Springs on U.S. Highway 19.

Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1943, primarily to benefit waterfowl. Peak wintering waterfowl populations number in the thousands for ducks and coots. Other birds present include: herons, egrets, rails, raptors, and songbirds; many of which nest on the refuge.

The objective of the Fish and Wildlife Service is to wisely manage and maintain the refuge's natural resources.

This checklist contains 234 species observed since 1951 by refuge personnel and visiting ornithologists. Another 21 species are of accidental occurrence and listed separately on the last page. The list was adopted in accordance with the July, 1982 American Ornithologists' Union (A.O.U.) update.


Symbols for seasonal abundance of each species are coded as follows:

Seasonal appearance

Sp - Spring - March to May
S - Summer - June to August
F - Fall - September to November
W - Winter - December to February

Seasonal abundance

a - abundant: a common species which is very numerous
c - common: certain to be seen in suitable habitat
u - uncommon: present but not certain to be seen
o - occasional: seen only a few times a season
r - rare: seen at intervals of 2 to 5 years
* - nests on refuge


Species LOONS (Order Gaviiformes) Sp S F W ___ Common Loon u - c c
GREBES (Order Podicipediformes) Sp S F W ___ Pied-billed Grebe* c c c c ___ Horned Grebe - - - u
PELICANS (Order Pelecaniformes) Sp S F W ___ American White Pelican c - c c ___ Brown Pelican c c c c
CORMORANTS (Order Pelecaniformes) Sp S F W ___ Double-crested Cormorant* a a a a ___ Anhinga* c c c c ___ Magnificent Frigatebird u u u u
HERONS (Order Ciconiiformes) Sp S F W ___ American Bittern u u u u ___ Least Bittern* u u u u ___ Great Blue Heron* a a a a ___ Great Egret* a a a a ___ Snowy Egret* a a c c ___ Little Blue Heron* c c c c ___ Tricolored (Louisiana) Heron* a a c c ___ Cattle Egret* c c c c ___ Green Heron* c c c c ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron* a a c c ___ Yellow-crowned Night-Heron* c c c c
IBISES (Order Anseriformes) Sp S F W ___ White Ibis* a a a a ___ Wood Stork u c u u
WATERFOWL (Order Anseriformes) Sp S F W ___ Tundra (Whistling) Swan - - r r ___ Greater White-Fronted Goose - - r r ___ Snow Goose r - r r ___ Wood Duck c c c c ___ Green-winged Teal a - a a ___ American Black Duck c - c a ___ Mottled Duck r r r r ___ Mallard a - a a ___ Northern Pintail a - a a ___ Blue-winged Teal a u a a ___ Northern Shoveler u - u u ___ Gadwall c - c c ___ American Wigeon a - a a ___ Canvasback c - c c ___ Redhead c - c c ___ Ring-necked Duck c - c c ___ Greater Scaup r - r r ___ Lesser Scaup a - a a ___ Common Goldeneye o - o o ___ Bufflehead u - u u ___ Hooded Merganser a - u a ___ Common Merganser o - r o ___ Red-breasted Merganser a - a a ___ Ruddy Duck o - o o
VULTURES (Order Falconiformes) Sp S F W ___ Black Vulture* c - c c ___ Turkey Vulture* a a a a
HAWKS (Order Falconiformes) Sp S F W ___ Osprey* c c c c ___ American Swallow-tailed Kite* u u o o ___ Bald Eagle* u o u u ___ Northern Harrier (Marsh Hawk) c - c c ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk u - u u ___ Cooper's Hawk u u u u ___ Red-shouldered Hawk* c c c c ___ Broad-winged Hawk o o o r ___ Short-tailed Hawk - - - u ___ Red-tailed Hawk* u u u u
FALCONS (Order Falconiformes) Sp S F W ___ American Kestrel* c c c c ___ Merlin - - - r ___ Peregrine Falcon - - - o
TURKEY, QUAIL (Order Galliformes) Sp S F W ___ Wild Turkey* u u u u ___ Northern Bobwhite* a a a a
RAILS (Order Gruiformes) Sp S F W ___ Yellow Rail - - - u ___ Black Rail* u u - - ___ Clapper Rail* c c c c ___ King Rail u u u u ___ Virginia Rail c - c c ___ Sora c - c c ___ Purple Gallinule u u u u ___ Common Moorhen* c c c c ___ American Coot a o a a ___ Limpkin* u u u u
CRANES (Order Gruiformes) Sp S F W ___ Sandhill Crane r r - -
PLOVERS (Order Charadriiformes) Sp S F W ___ Black-bellied Plover o - o u ___ Snowy Plover - - - o ___ Wilson's Plover u u c c ___ Semipalmated Plover o - o c ___ Piping Plover - - - o ___ Killdeer* c c c c
SANDPIPERS (Order Charadriiformes) Sp S F W ___ Greater Yellowlegs c - c c ___ Lesser Yellowlegs r - r - ___ Solitary Sandpiper o - o - ___ Willet c c c c ___ Spotted Sandpiper c - c c ___ Whimbrel r - r - ___ Marbled Godwit - - r - ___ Ruddy Turnstone o - o u ___ Red Knot r - r - ___ Sanderling - - - u ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper o - o c ___ Western Sandpiper - - - r ___ Least Sandpiper c - c c ___ Pectoral Sandpiper r - r - ___ Dunlin - - - c ___ Stilt Sandpiper - - u - ___ Short-billed Dowitcher c - c c ___ Long-billed Dowitcher u - u u ___ Common Snipe c - c c ___ American Woodcock - - - r
GULLS, TERNS (Order Charadriiformes) Sp S F W ___ Laughing Gull u u u c ___ Bonaparte's Gull - - - c ___ Ring-billed Gull c - c c ___ Herring Gull c - c c ___ Caspian Tern o - o o ___ Royal Tern c - c c ___ Sandwich Tern u o o o ___ Common Tern o - - c ___ Forster's Tern u - u c ___ Least Tern c c c u ___ Black Tern o u o - ___ Black Skimmer o o o o
DOVES (Order Columbiformes) Sp S F W ___ Mourning Dove* c c c c ___ Common Ground-Dove* c c c c
PARROTS (Order Psittaciformes) Sp S F W ___ Budgerigar r r - -
CUCKOOS (Order Cuculiformes) Sp S F W ___ Black-billed Cuckoo r - r - ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo o c o -
OWLS (Order Strigiformes) Sp S F W ___ Barn Owl r r r r ___ Eastern Screech-Owl* c c c c ___ Great Horned Owl* u u u u ___ Barred Owl* c c c c ___ Short-eared Owl - - - u
GOATSUCKERS (Order Caprimulgiformes) Sp S F W ___ Common Nighthawk* c c c - ___ Chuck-will's-widow* c c c c ___ Whip-poor-will - - - u
SWIFTS, HUMMINGBIRDS (Order Apodiformes) Sp S F W ___ Chimney Swift o o o - ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird* u u u u
KINGFISHERS (Order Coraciiformes) Sp S F W ___ Belted Kingfisher* c c c c
WOODPECKERS (Order Piciformes) Sp S F W ___ Red-headed Woodpecker* u u u u ___ Red-bellied Woodpecker* u u u u ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker u u u u ___ Downy Woodpecker* u u u u ___ Hairy Woodpecker* u u u u ___ Northern Flicker* c c c c ___ Pileated Woodpecker* u u u u
FLYCATCHERS (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee u u u - ___ Acadian Flycatcher - u - - ___ Eastern Phoebe - - - c ___ Great Crested Flycatcher* c c c - ___ Eastern Kingbird* c c c r ___ Gray Kingbird* c c c -
SWALLOWS (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ Purple Martin* c c c - ___ Tree Swallow c - c a ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow* u o u - ___ Barn Swallow o - o -
JAYS, CROWS (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ Blue Jay* c c c c ___ American Crow* c c c a ___ Fish Crow* c c c c
CHICKADEES, TITMICE (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ Carolina Chickadee* c c c c ___ Tufted Titmouse* c c c c
NUTHATCHES (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ White-breasted Nuthatch* u u u u ___ Brown-headed Nuthatch* c c c c
CREEPERS (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ Brown Creeper - - - u
WRENS (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ Carolina Wren* c c c c ___ House Wren o - o c ___ Winter Wren o - o u ___ Sedge Wren u - u u ___ Marsh Wren* c c c c
KINGLETS (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet u - u u ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet - - - u ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher* u u u u
THRUSHES (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ Eastern Bluebird* u u u u ___ Veery u - u - ___ Gray-cheecked Thrush o - o - ___ Swainson's Thrush o - o - ___ Hermit Thrush - - - u ___ Wood Thrush c - c - ___ American Robin c - c a
THRASHERS (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ Gray Catbird c - c c ___ Northern Mockingbird* c c c c ___ Brown Thrasher* c c c c
PIPITS (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ Water Pipit - - - u
WAXWINGS (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ Cedar Waxwing u - u u
SHRIKES (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ Loggerhead Shrike* c c c c
STARLINGS (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ European Starling* c c c c
VIREOS (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ White-eyed Vireo* c - c c ___ Solitary Vireo c c c c ___ Yellow-throated Vireo* o - o - ___ Red-eyed Vireo* c c c -
WARBLERS (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ Orange-crowned Warbler u - u u ___ Northern Parula c c c u ___ Yellow Warbler u u u - ___ Magnolia Warbler u - u - ___ Cape May Warbler u - u - ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler u - u - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler c - c a ___ Black-throated Green Warbler u - u - ___ Yellow-throated Warbler* c c c c ___ Pine Warbler* c c c c ___ Prairie Warbler* c c c c ___ Palm Warbler c - c c ___ Blackpoll Warbler u - u - ___ Black-and-white Warbler o - o o ___ American Redstart u - u - ___ Prothonotary Warbler - u - - ___ Worm-eating Warbler u - u - ___ Ovenbird c - c c ___ Northern Waterthrush u - u - ___ Louisiana Waterthrush u - u - ___ Connecticut Warbler u - u - ___ Common Yellowthroat* c c c c ___ Hooded Warbler c c c - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat u - u -
TANAGERS (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ Summer Tanager* u c - - ___ Scarlet Tanager u - u -
CARDINALS, GROSBEAKS (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ Northern Cardinal* a a a a ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak r - r - ___ Blue Grosbeak c u - - ___ Indigo Bunting u - u - ___ Painted Bunting r r r -
SPARROWS (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ Rufous-sided Towhee* c c c c ___ Bachman's Sparrow r r r r ___ Chipping Sparrow r - r u ___ Field Sparrow u - u u ___ Vesper Sparrow - - - c ___ Savannah Sparrow c - c a ___ Grasshopper Sparrow - - - u ___ Henslow's Sparrow - - - u ___ Le Conte's Sparrow - - - u ___ Sharp-tailed Sparrow - - - u ___ Seaside Sparrow* c c c c ___ Song Sparrow c - c c ___ Swamp Sparrow c - c c ___ White-throated Sparrow a - a a ___ Dark-eyed Junco o - - u
BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ Bobolink o - o - ___ Red-winged Blackbird* a a a a ___ Eastern Meadowlark* c c c c ___ Rusty Blackbird - - - c ___ Boat-tailed Grackle* a a a a ___ Common Grackle* u u u u ___ Brown-headed Cowbird - - - o ___ Northern Oriole o u o -
FINCHES (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ American Goldfinch - - - c
WEAVER FINCH (Order Passeriformes) Sp S F W ___ House Sparrow r r r r
These additional 21 species are of accidental occurrence, in most instances substantiated by only one or two records.

Sooty Shearwater                           Black-necked Stilt
Brown Booby                                American Avocet
Northern Gannet                            Buff-breasted Sandpiper
Reddish Egret                              Sooty Tern
Scarlet Ibis                               White-winged Dove
Glossy Ibis                                Western Kingbird
Roseate Spoonbill                          Scissor-tailed Flycatcher
Fluvous Whistling-Duck                     Bank Swallow
Canada Goose                               Scrub Jay
American Oystercatcher                     Bewick's Wren
Red-necked Phalarope

For additional information contact:
                        Refuge Manager
                        Chassahowitzka NWR
                        1502 S. Kings Bay Drive
                        Crystal River, Florida 34429
                        Telephone: 904/563-2088
This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1983. Birds of Chassahowitzka National 
     Wildlife Refuge, Florida. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Unpaginated.
This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1983. Birds of Chassahowitzka National 
     Wildlife Refuge, Florida. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Unpaginated.
     Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.
     http://www.npwrc.usgs.govchassaho.htm 
     (Version 18JUL00).

Return to Bird Checklists of Florida
Return to Bird Checklists of the United States

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/birds/chekbird/r4/chassaho.htm
Page Contact Information: Webmaster
Page Last Modified: Friday, 01-Feb-2013 18:51:55 EST
Sioux Falls, SD [sdww54]