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Bird Checklists of the United States

Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge

small state map showing location

Office in Quincy, Illinois


The Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1958 and supports a great diversity of riverine and floodplain habitats scattered along 340 miles of the Mississippi River corridor between Muscatine, Iowa and Gorham, Illinios. The 45,000 acres of habitats include islands, sloughs, backwaters, marshes, moist soil, open waters, bottomland forests, and croplands and serve as a home to numerous mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish and hundreds of bird species.

Certain refuge lands may be closed to serve as a sanctuary for the wildlife found there. Please contact the appropriate District Office to learn of the open areas and birding opportunities.

Legend

The following list contains 294 species that have been observed on the refuge. Those species marked with an asterisk (*) have nested on the refuge. Because of the length of the refuge and variation in bird use, birds found on one district and not on others are identified by the first letter of the district following the bird name.

(A) - Annada District S - March-May
(B) - Brussels District s - June-August
(W) - Wapello District F - September-November
W - December-February

a - abundant, very numerous
c - common, certain to be seen in suitable habitat
u - uncommon, present but not certain to be seen
o - occasional, seen only a few times during the season
r - rare, seen only at intervals of 2 to 4 years
(E) - Endangered
(T) - Threatened


GREBES S s F W ___ Pied-billed Grebe* c u c u ___ Horned Grebe o - o o ___ Eared Grebe r - - - ___ Western Grebe - - o -
CORMORANTS S s F W ___ Double-crested Cormorant* r - r -
PELICANS S s F W ___ American White Pelican c u c -
DUCKS,SWANS, GEESE S s F W ___ Ruddy Duck c - o r ___ Tundra Swan (Whistling Swan) r - r - ___ Greater White-fronted Goose u - u o ___ Snow Goose c - c c ___ Ross's Goose - - - r ___ Canada Goose* a a a c ___ Wood Duck* a c a r ___ American Wigeon a - a r ___ Gadwall c r c r ___ Green-winged Teal a - a r ___ Mallard* a a a c ___ American Black Duck u - u o ___ Northern Pintail a - a r ___ Blue-winged Teal* a - a r ___ Northern Shoveler a - a r ___ Canvasback c - c o ___ Redhead o - o - ___ Ring-necked Duck a - a o ___ Greater Scaup o - o r ___ Lesser Scaup a - a o ___ Common Goldeneye a - c a ___ Bufflehead u - o r ___ Hooded Merganser* c u c r ___ Red-breasted Merganser r - r r ___ Common Merganser a - a a
HERONS,EGRETS, BITTERNS S s F W ___ Little Blue Heron r r r - ___ Snowy Egret* r r - - ___ Great Blue Heron* c c c u ___ Great Egret* c c c - ___ Cattle Egret* o o o - ___ Green Heron* u u u - ___ Yellow-crowned Night-Heron* o o o - ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron o u o - ___ Least Bittern* o o o - ___ American Bittern* u o o -
IBIS S s F W ___ Glossy Ibis (A) - r - - ___ White-faced Ibis (A) r - r -
VULTURES S s F W ___ Turkey Vulture* c c c -
OSPREY S s F W ___ Osprey u u u -
HAWKS,EAGLES, KITES S s F W ___ Mississippi Kite o o - - ___ Bald Eagle* (T) c r u a ___ Northern Harrier (Marsh Hawk) u r u u ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk u - u u ___ Cooper's Hawk* u u u u ___ Northern Goshawk r - r r ___ Red-shouldered Hawk* o o o r ___ Broad-winged Hawk o o o - ___ Red-tailed Hawk* c c c c ___ Rough-legged Hawk u - u u ___ Golden Eagle - - r r
FALCONS S s F W ___ American Kestrel* c c c c ___ Merlin r - r - ___ Peregrine Falcon (E) r r r -
PHEASANTS,GROUSE,QUAIL, TURKEYS S s F W ___ Ring-necked Pheasant* c c c c ___ Wild Turkey* u u u u ___ Northern Bobwhite* u u u u
RAILS, COOTS S s F W ___ King Rail* u u u - ___ Virginia Rail o o r - ___ Sora* u o o - ___ Common Moorhen* r r r - ___ American Coot* a u a r ___ Sandhill Crane r - r -
SANDPIPERS S s F W ___ American Woodcock* u o o - ___ Common Snipe* u r u o ___ Upland Sandpiper r r r - ___ Greater Yellowlegs u u u - ___ Lesser Yellowlegs c c c - ___ Red Knot (B) - o o - ___ Solitary Sandpiper c c c - ___ Spotted Sandpiper* c c c - ___ Willet r r r - ___ Short-billed Dowitcher u u u - ___ Long-billed Dowitcher u u u - ___ Sanderling (W) - - r - ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper c c c - ___ Western Sandpiper - - r - ___ Least Sandpiper c c c - ___ White-rumped Sandpiper (B) o - - - ___ Baird's Sandpiper (W & A) o o o - ___ Pectoral Sandpiper c c c - ___ Dunlin r r r - ___ Stilt Sandpiper r o o - ___ Buff-breasted Sandpiper - r r - ___ Wilson's Phalarope r r r - ___ Red-necked Phalarope r - r -
AVOCETS, STILTS S s F W ___ American Avocet r - r -
PLOVERS S s F W ___ American Golden-Plover (Lesser Gol-Pl.) o - o - ___ Black-bellied Plover o - o - ___ Semipalmated Plover u u u - ___ Killdeer* c c c r ___ Piping Plover (E) r r - -
GULLS, TERNS S s F W ___ Ring-billed Gull a u a c ___ Glaucous Gull r - - r ___ Thayer's Gull r - - r ___ Herring Gull a r a a ___ Bonaparte's Gull u - u r ___ Franklin's Gull o - o r ___ Black Tern u r o - ___ Caspian Tern u o u - ___ Common Tern o r o - ___ Forster's Tern u o u - ___ Least Tern (E) - - o -
LOONS S s F W ___ Common Loon o - o r
PIGEONS, DOVES S s F W ___ Rock Dove o o o o ___ Mourning Dove* c c c c
CUCKOOS S s F W ___ Black-billed Cuckoo o r o - ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo* u c u -
OWLS S s F W ___ Eastern Screech-Owl* u u u u ___ Great Horned Owl* c c c c ___ Barred Owl* c c c c ___ Long-eared Owl r - r r ___ Short-eared Owl r - r o
NIGHTJARS S s F W ___ Common Nighthawk* u c c - ___ Chuck-will's-widow o r - - ___ Whip-poor-will* u o o -
SWIFTS S s F W ___ Chimney Swift* c c c -
HUMMINGBIRDS S s F W ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird* c c o -
KINGFISHERS S s F W ___ Belted Kingfisher* u u u o
WOODPECKERS S s F W ___ Red-headed Woodpecker* a a a o ___ Red-bellied Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker u r u r ___ Downy Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Hairy Woodpecker* u u u u ___ Northern Flicker (Common Flicker)* c c c u ___ Pileated Woodpecker* u u u u
TYRANT FLYCATCHERS S s F W ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher o r o - ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee* u c u - ___ Yellow-bellied Flycatcher u o u - ___ Acadian Flycatcher* r r r - ___ Alder Flycatcher r r r - ___ Willow Flycatcher o o o - ___ Least Flycatcher u o u - ___ Eastern Phoebe* u u u - ___ Great Crested Flycatcher* u c u - ___ Eastern Kingbird* u u u -
JAYS, CROWS S s F W ___ Blue Jay* a a a c ___ American Crow* a a a a ___ Fish Crow o - - -
VIREOS S s F W ___ Bell's Vireo o o r - ___ White-eyed Vireo* o o r - ___ Blue-headed Vireo u r u - ___ Yellow-throated Vireo* c c c - ___ Philadelphia Vireo o r o - ___ Red-eyed Vireo* c u c - ___ Warbling Vireo* c c c -
SHRIKES S s F W ___ Loggerhead Shrike* r r r -
WAXWINGS S s F W ___ Cedar Waxwing* c u c u
THRUSHES S s F W ___ Eastern Bluebird* u u u o ___ Veery o o o - ___ Gray-cheeked Thrush u o u - ___ Swainson's Thrush u o u - ___ Hermit Thrush u - u r ___ Wood Thrush o o o - ___ American Robin* a a a o
MOCKINGBIRDS, THRASHERS S s F W ___ Gray Catbird* c c c - ___ Northern Mockingbird* o o o r ___ Brown Thrasher* c c c r
STARLINGS S s F W ___ European Starling* a a a a
NUTHATCHES S s F W ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch o - u o ___ White-breasted Nuthatch* c c c c
CREEPERS S s F W ___ Brown Creeper* u o u u
WRENS S s F W ___ Sedge Wren* o o o - ___ Marsh Wren* u u u - ___ Carolina Wren* u u u o ___ Winter Wren u - u o ___ House Wren* c a c -
GNATCATCHERS S s F W ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher* u u u -
SWALLOWS S s F W ___ Tree Swallow* c a a - ___ Purple Martin* u u o - ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow* c a c - ___ Bank Swallow u c u - ___ Barn Swallow* c c c - ___ Cliff Swallow* u c u -
KINGLETS S s F W ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet c - c r ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet c - c o
CHICKADEES, TITS S s F W ___ Black-capped Chickadee* a a a a ___ Carolina Chickadee* (B&A) c c c - ___ Tufted Titmouse* c c c c
LARKS S s F W ___ Horned Lark* c c c u
OLD WORLD SPARROWS S s F W ___ House Sparrow* a a a a ___ Eurasian Tree Sparrow* u u u u
PIPITS S s F W ___ American Pipit (Water Pipit) r - r -
SISKINS, CROSSBILLS AND ALLIES S s F W ___ House Finch* c c c c ___ Pine Siskin o - o o ___ American Goldfinch* c c c c ___ Purple Finch u - u u ___ Evening Grosbeak r - r r
WARBLERS S s F W ___ Blue-winged Warbler o r o - ___ Golden-winged Warbler o r o - ___ Tennessee Warbler c o c - ___ Orange-crowned Warbler o - o - ___ Nashville Warbler c o c - ___ Northern Parula* o o o - ___ Yellow Warbler* u u u - ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler u o u - ___ Magnolia Warbler u o u - ___ Cape May Warbler o - o - ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler r - r - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler a - a r ___ Black-throated Green Warbler u o u - ___ Blackburnian Warbler o r o - ___ Yellow-throated Warbler* o o o - ___ Pine Warbler r - r - ___ Palm Warbler c o c - ___ Bay-breasted Warbler o r u - ___ Blackpoll Warbler u - u - ___ Cerulean Warbler* o r r - ___ Black-and-white Warbler c u c - ___ American Redstart* c c c - ___ Prothonotary Warbler* c c u - ___ Worm-eating Warbler r r r - ___ Ovenbird u o u - ___ Northern Waterthrush c o c - ___ Louisiana Waterthrush o r r - ___ Kentucky Warbler* o r r - ___ Connecticut Warbler (W) r - r - ___ Mourning Warbler o r r - ___ Common Yellowthroat* c c c - ___ Hooded Warbler r r r - ___ Wilson's Warbler o o o - ___ Canada Warbler o o o - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat* r r r -
BUNTINGS, SPARROWS, TANAGERS S s F W ___ Lapland Longspur o - o o ___ Snow Bunting r - o o ___ Fox Sparrow u - u r ___ Song Sparrow* c c c c ___ Lincoln's Sparrow o r o r ___ Swamp Sparrow* u o u u ___ Harris' Sparrow r - r r ___ White-crowned Sparrow u - u o ___ White-throated Sparrow a - a o ___ Dark-eyed Junco a - a a ___ Savannah Sparrow* u o u - ___ Grasshopper Sparrow o o o - ___ American Tree Sparrow a - a a ___ Chipping Sparrow* c c c - ___ Clay-colored Sparrow r - r - ___ Field Sparrow* u u u r ___ Vesper Sparrow u u u - ___ Lark Sparrow o o o - ___ Eastern Towhee* u u u r ___ Summer Tanager* r r r - ___ Scarlet Tanager* u u u - ___ Dickcissel* c c c - ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak* u o c - ___ Northern Cardinal* c c c c ___ Indigo Bunting* c c c -
BLACKBIRDS, GRACKLES, ORIOLES S s F W ___ Baltimore Oriole* c c c - ___ Orchard Oriole* u o o - ___ Yellow-headed Blackbird (W) r r r - ___ Red-winged Blackbird* a a a u ___ Eastern Meadowlark* c c c r ___ Western Meadowlark (W) c c c r ___ Common Grackle* a a a u ___ Rusty Blackbird u - u r ___ Brewer's Blackbird r - r r ___ Brown-headed Cowbird* c c c u ___ Bobolink u o o -
Accidental Species

Western Kingbird (W) Surf Scoter (W) Trumpeter Swan (W) Black Scoter Black-necked Stilt (A) White-winged Scoter Marbled Godwit (W&A) Barn Owl (W) Barrow's Goldeneye (B&A) Snowy Owl (A) Swainson's Hawk (W) Blue Grosbeak (W) Ferruginous Hawk (W) Bewick's Wren (W) Yellow Rail (W&A) Mute Swan (W) Henslow's Sparrow (W) Gray Partridge (W) LeConte's Sparrow (W) Prairie Falcon (W) Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow (W) Red Crossbill (W) White-winged Crossbill (W) Iceland Gull (W) Common Redpoll (W) Ruddy Turnstone (A) Great Black-backed Gull (W) Oldsquaw (W) Lesser Black-backed Gull (W) Brant


For more information:

Annada District (MO) 573/847-2333 Brussels District (IL) 618/883-2524 Wapello District (IA) 319/523-6982

Deaf/Hard of hearing individuals may use the state relay services listed below:

MO 800/735-2966 (TDD) IA 800/735-2942 (TTY) IL 800/526-0844 (TTY)

This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  11/97.  Bird list of Mark Twain National 
     Wildlife Refuge.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  11/97. Bird list of Mark Twain National 
     Wildlife Refuge.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated. 
     Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.
     http://www.npwrc.usgs.govmrktwain.htm 
     (Version 22JULY98).

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