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Bird Checklists of the United States

Great River & Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuges

small state map showing location

Annada, Missouri


Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1964 to provide feeding and nesting habitat for migratory waterfowl.

Centrally located within the Mississippi River Valley, this 3,752 acre refuge has wetlands, grasslands, cultivated fields, forests, mudflats, and impoundments.

Water levels are manipulated within the impoundments (or moist soil units) to produce natural waterfowl foods, resulting in wide seasonal variations of habitat. Such diverse habitat not only provides for the needs of waterfowl, but also supports a wide variety of other migratory bird species.

During the spring and fall migrations, mallard, wood duck, pintail, wigeon, teal, shoveler, Canada geese and snow geese are but a few birds that visit the refuge by the thousands.

Shorebird and warbler migrations usually peak around the first week of May.

The following list contains 237 species that have been observed on Clarence Cannon Refuge since its establishment. This bird list is in accordance with the Sixth American Ornithologists' Union of North American birds as amended.


Those species marked with an asterisk "*" have nested on the refuge.
Endangered species are indicated with a "#".
Abundance symbols are grouped under columns representing the four seasons as follows:

Sp - March-May
S - June-August
F - September-November
W - December-February

a - abundant: very numerous
c - common: certain to be seen in suitable habitat
u - uncommon: present but not certain to be seen
o - occasional: seen only a few times during a season
r - rare: seen only at intervals of 2 to 4 years


GREBES Sp S F W ___ Pied-billed Grebe c u c u ___ Horned Grebe o - o o
PELICANS, CORMORANTS Sp S F W ___ American White Pelican - - r - ___ Double-crested Cormorant r - r -
BITTERNS, HERONS, IBISES Sp S F W ___ American Bittern u r u - ___ Least Bittern* u u - - ___ Great Blue Heron c c c u ___ Great Egret c c c - ___ Snowy Egret r u - - ___ Little Blue Heron u c c - ___ Cattle Egret r u - - ___ Green Heron* c c c - ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron* c u u - ___ Yellow-crowned Night-Heron* c u u - ___ White Ibis r - r - ___ Glossy Ibis - r - -
SWANS, GEESE, DUCKS Sp S F W ___ Tundra Swan (Whistling Swan) o r - - ___ Greater White-fronted Goose u - u o ___ Snow Goose c - c c ___ Canada Goose* c o c c ___ Wood Duck* c a a o ___ Green-winged Teal* c u c - ___ American Black Duck* u - u u ___ Mallard* c c a a ___ Northern Pintail c o a c ___ Blue-winged Teal* c u c - ___ Northern Shoveler c o c u ___ Gadwall c r c o ___ American Wigeon c - c u ___ Canvasback u - u u ___ Redhead c - c c ___ Ring-necked Duck c - c c ___ Greater Scaup o - o o ___ Lesser Scaup a o c c ___ Oldsquaw - - o - ___ Common Goldeneye u - u c ___ Bufflehead u - u u ___ Hooded Merganser* u u u u ___ Common Merganser u - u a ___ Red-breasted Merganser u - u - ___ Ruddy Duck a - c a
VULTURES, HAWKS, FALCONS Sp S F W ___ Turkey Vulture* c c c - ___ Osprey u - u o ___ Bald Eagle*# u - u c ___ Golden Eagle r - o r ___ Northern Harrier (Marsh Hawk) u - u c ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk u r u u ___ Cooper's Hawk o o o c ___ Northern Goshawk - - o r ___ Red-shouldered Hawk u u c u ___ Broad-winged Hawk o o o - ___ Red-tailed Hawk* c u c c ___ Rough-legged Hawk o - o o ___ American Kestrel u u u u ___ Peregrine Falcon# o r - -
GALLINACEOUS BIRDS Sp S F W ___ Wild Turkey* u u u u ___ Northern Bobwhite* u u u u
RAILS Sp S F W ___ King Rail* o r - - ___ Virginia Rail u r - - ___ Sora c u c - ___ Common Moorhen - o o - ___ American Coot* c u a u
SHOREBIRDS, GULLS, TERNS Sp S F W ___ Black-bellied Plover c - o - ___ American Golden-Plover (Lesser Gol-Pl.) u - r - ___ Semipalmated Plover o - u - ___ Killdeer* c c c o ___ American Avocet - - r - ___ Greater Yellowlegs c c c - ___ Lesser Yellowlegs c c c - ___ Solitary Sandpiper c c c - ___ Willet r - - - ___ Spotted Sandpiper* c c c - ___ Upland Sandpiper o - - - ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper u u u - ___ Least Sandpiper c c c - ___ White-rumped Sandpiper r - r - ___ Western Sandpiper r u - - ___ Baird's Sandpiper r - - - ___ Pectoral Sandpiper c c o - ___ Dunlin u - u - ___ Stilt Sandpiper u r u - ___ Short-billed Dowitcher u - u - ___ Long-billed Dowitcher u - u - ___ Common Snipe c - c o ___ American Woodcock* c c c - ___ Wilson's Phalarope r - r - ___ Red-necked Phalarope r - r - ___ Caspian Tern u o u - ___ Common Tern o - o - ___ Forster's Tern u - u - ___ Least Tern - - o - ___ Black Tern c o u - ___ Franklin's Gull o - o - ___ Bonaparte's Gull r - r - ___ Ring-billed Gull c - c c ___ Herring Gull u - u c
DOVES Sp S F W ___ Rock Dove o o o o ___ Mourning Dove c c c u
CUCKOOS Sp S F W ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo* c c c u ___ Black-billed Cuckoo r - r -
OWLS Sp S F W ___ Eastern Screech-Owl* c c c c ___ Great Horned Owl* u u u u ___ Barred Owl* c c c c ___ Long-eared Owl - - - o ___ Short-eared Owl - - o o
GOATSUCKERS Sp S F W ___ Common Nighthawk* u u o - ___ Chuck-will's-widow o - - - ___ Whip-poor-will* o - - -
SWIFTS, HUMMINGBIRDS Sp S F W ___ Chimney Swift* c c c - ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird* c c o -
KINGFISHERS Sp S F W ___ Belted Kingfisher* u u u o
WOODPECKERS Sp S F W ___ Red-headed Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Red-bellied Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker* c - c - ___ Downy Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Hairy Woodpecker* u u u u ___ Pileated Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Northern Flicker (Common Flicker)* c c c c
FLYCATCHERS Sp S F W ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee c c c - ___ Yellow-bellied Flycatcher u - u - ___ Acadian Flycatcher c c c - ___ Alder Flycatcher r o - - ___ Willow Flycatcher r o - - ___ Eastern Phoebe* u u u - ___ Great Crested Flycatcher* c c c - ___ Eastern Kingbird* c c c -
LARKS Sp S F W ___ Horned Lark* c c c c
SWALLOWS Sp S F W ___ Purple Martin* c c c - ___ Tree Swallow* c c a - ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow* c c c - ___ Bank Swallow* c c c - ___ Cliff Swallow* c c c - ___ Barn Swallow* c c c -
JAYS, CROWS Sp S F W ___ Blue Jay* c c c c ___ American Crow* c c c c
CHICKADEES Sp S F W ___ Black-capped Chickadee* c c c c ___ Tufted Titmouse* c c c c
NUTHATCHES Sp S F W ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch o - o - ___ White-breasted Nuthatch* c c c c
CREEPERS Sp S F W ___ Brown Creeper u - u -
WRENS Sp S F W ___ Carolina Wren* c c c o ___ House Wren* o o - - ___ Winter Wren - - o o ___ Sedge Wren u c u - ___ Marsh Wren o o o -
KINGLETS Sp S F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet u - u o ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet u u - - ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher* c c - -
THRUSHES Sp S F W ___ Eastern Bluebird* u u u u ___ Veery u - u - ___ Gray-cheeked Thrush u - u - ___ Swainson's Thrush u - u - ___ Wood Thrush* o u - - ___ American Robin c c c o
THRASHERS Sp S F W ___ Gray Catbird* u u u - ___ Northern Mockingbird* u u u o ___ Brown Thrasher* c c c o
PIPITS Sp S F W ___ American Pipit (Water Pipit) o - o -
WAXWINGS Sp S F W ___ Cedar Waxwing* u u u u
SHRIKES Sp S F W ___ Loggerhead Shrike* o u u o
STARLINGS Sp S F W ___ European Starling* c c c c
VIREOS Sp S F W ___ White-eyed Vireo* u u u - ___ Yellow-throated Vireo u u - - ___ Warbling Vireo* c c - - ___ Red-eyed Vireo* u u u -
FINCHES Sp S F W ___ Purple Finch u - u u ___ Pine Siskin - - - r ___ American Goldfinch* c c c c ___ Evening Grosbeak - - - r
WOOD WARBLERS Sp S F W ___ Golden-winged Warbler o - o - ___ Tennessee Warbler u - u - ___ Orange-crowned Warbler u - u - ___ Nashville Warbler u - u - ___ Northern Parula* u - u - ___ Yellow Warbler* u u u - ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler u - u - ___ Magnolia Warbler u - u - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler c - c o ___ Yellow-throated Warbler o - - - ___ Pine Warbler o - - - ___ Palm Warbler u - u - ___ Blackpoll Warbler u - u - ___ Cerulean Warbler* u o - - ___ Black-and-white Warbler u - u - ___ American Redstart* c c c - ___ Prothonotary Warbler* c c c - ___ Worm-eating Warbler - - u - ___ Ovenbird u - u - ___ Northern Waterthrush c - u - ___ Louisiana Waterthrush* u - u - ___ Kentucky Warbler* - u u u ___ Common Yellowthroat* - c c c ___ Wilson's Warbler - u u - ___ Canada Warbler - u u - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat* - u u u
SPARROWS Sp S F W ___ Summer Tanager* u u u - ___ Scarlet Tanager* u u - - ___ Northern Cardinal* c c c c ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak u u u - ___ Indigo Bunting* c c c - ___ Dickcissel* c c c - ___ Rufous-sided Towhee* u u u - ___ American Tree Sparrow c - c c ___ Chipping Sparrow u - o - ___ Field Sparrow* c c c o ___ Vesper Sparrow u u - - ___ Lark Sparrow o u - - ___ Savannah Sparrow u - u - ___ Fox Sparrow u - u o ___ Song Sparrow* c c c c ___ Lincoln's Sparrow o - o - ___ Swamp Sparrow c - c c ___ White-throated Sparrow c - c u ___ White-crowned Sparrow c - c o ___ Lapland Longspur r - r r
MEADOWLARKS, BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES Sp S F W ___ Bobolink u r - - ___ Red-winged Blackbird* a a a c ___ Eastern Meadowlark* c c c u ___ Rusty Blackbird u - u r ___ Brewer's Blackbird - - - r ___ Common Grackle* a a a c ___ Brown-headed Cowbird* c c c - ___ Orchard Oriole* u u - - ___ Baltimore Oriole* c c - -
OLD WORLD SPARROWS Sp S F W ___ House Sparrow* c c c c
ACCIDENTAL SPECIES Brant Marbled Godwit Barrow's Goldeneye Ruddy Turnstone Black Scoter Black-necked Stilt Sandhill Crane Piping Plover# Yellow Rail Yellow-headed Blackbird Glaucous Gull

For further information contact:
                 Refuge Manager
                 Great River & Clarence Cannon NWR's
                 PO Box 88
                 Annada, Missouri 63330
                 Telephone: 314/847-2333

This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1991.  Birds of Clarence Cannon National 
     Wildlife Refuge.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Refuge.  Unpaginated.
This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1991.  Birds of Great River & Clarence Cannon 
     National Wildlife Refuges.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Refuge.  Unpaginated.
     Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.
     http://www.npwrc.usgs.govgreatriv.htm 
     (Version 30DEC2002).

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