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Bird Checklists of the United States

Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge

Carterville, Illinois


This list contains 220 species which have been recorded on the refuge. Another 40 species, very rare or accidental and out of their normal range, are listed under "Accidental" birds.


# - irruptive species seen only during invasion years (2-10 year intervals)
* - nests on refuge

Sp - March-May
S - June-August
F - September-November
W - December-February

a - abundant: common species that is very numerous
c - common: certain to be seen in suitable habitat
u - uncommon: present but not certain to be seen
o - occasional: seen only a few times during a season
r - rare: seen only once or twice a year; some years not at all


LOONS Sp S F W ___ Common Loon u - o u
GREBES Sp S F W ___ Pied-billed Grebe u - c c ___ Horned Grebe c - c o ___ Eared Grebe o - - o
CORMORANTS Sp S F W ___ Double-crested Cormorant c o a a
BITTERNS, HERONS Sp S F W ___ American Bittern o - r - ___ Great Blue Heron c c c c ___ Great Egret o u u - ___ Little Blue Heron u u u - ___ Cattle Egret o u o - ___ Green Heron* u c c - ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron* r o o - ___ Yellow-crowned Night-Heron r - o -
SWANS, GEESE, DUCKS Sp S F W ___ Tundra Swan (Whistling Swan) o r u u ___ Mute Swan r - r r ___ Greater White-fronted Goose - - r o ___ Snow Goose o - u u ___ Canada Goose* c u a a ___ Wood Duck c c c c ___ Green-winged Teal o - o r ___ American Black Duck c - a a ___ Mallard* c c a a ___ Northern Pintail o - u c ___ Blue-winged Teal c u a o ___ Northern Shoveler a o a c ___ Gadwall a - a a ___ American Wigeon c - c u ___ Canvasback u - o c ___ Redhead a - u o ___ Ring-necked Duck a - a a ___ Greater Scaup r - r - ___ Lesser Scaup a - a c ___ Common Goldeneye c - o a ___ Bufflehead c - c c ___ Hooded Merganser c - a a ___ Common Merganser a - c a ___ Red-breasted Merganser a - c o ___ Ruddy Duck a - u c
VULTURES, HAWKS, FALCONS Sp S F W ___ Turkey Vulture* c c c r ___ Osprey o r o r ___ Mississippi Kite r r r - ___ Bald Eagle* u u c c ___ Northern Harrier (Marsh Hawk) o r o o ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk o - u u ___ Cooper's Hawk* u u u o ___ Northern Goshawk r - r r ___ Red-shouldered Hawk* c u u c ___ Broad-winged Hawk* o u u o ___ Red-tailed Hawk* c c c c ___ Rough-legged Hawk o r r o ___ Golden Eagle o - o o ___ American Kestrel* c c c c ___ Merlin r - r r
GALLINACEOUS BIRDS Sp S F W ___ Wild Turkey* c c c c ___ Northern Bobwhite* c c c c
RAILS Sp S F W ___ Virginia Rail r r r - ___ Sora o - o - ___ American Coot u u c c
SHOREBIRDS Sp S F W ___ American Golden-Plover c - u - ___ Semipalmated Plover c - o - ___ Killdeer* c c c c ___ American Avocet - - o - ___ Greater Yellowlegs c - u - ___ Lesser Yellowlegs c u c - ___ Solitary Sandpiper c o c - ___ Willet r o - - ___ Spotted Sandpiper* u u - - ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper u - u - ___ Least Sandpiper c u u - ___ White-rumped Sandpiper o - r - ___ Pectoral Sandpiper a c c - ___ Stilt Sandpiper r - u - ___ Short-billed Dowitcher o - c - ___ Long-billed Dowitcher o - o - ___ Common Snipe c - c o ___ American Woodcock* c c c o ___ Wilson's Phalarope o r o -
GULLS, TERNS Sp S F W ___ Bonaparte's Gull c - u c ___ Ring-billed Gull a o c a ___ Herring Gull c - u c ___ Caspian Tern r - r - ___ Forster's Tern o - r - ___ Black Tern o r u -
DOVES Sp S F W ___ Rock Dove u u u u ___ Mourning Dove c c c c
CUCKOOS Sp S F W ___ Black-billed Cuckoo o o o - ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo u c c -
OWLS Sp S F W ___ Barn Owl o o o o ___ Eastern Screech-Owl* u u u u ___ Great Horned Owl* c c c c ___ Barred Owl* c c c c ___ Short-eared Owl r - o r
GOATSUCKERS Sp S F W ___ Common Nighthawk* o u o - ___ Chuck-will's-widow* o o - - ___ Whip-poor-will u u o -
SWIFTS, HUMMINGBIRDS Sp S F W ___ Chimney Swift* c c c - ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird* u c o -
KINGFISHERS Sp S F W ___ Belted Kingfisher* u u u u
WOODPECKERS Sp S F W ___ Red-headed Woodpecker* u u u u ___ Red-bellied Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker o - o r ___ Downy Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Hairy Woodpecker* o o o o ___ Northern Flicker (Common Flicker)* c c c c ___ Pileated Woodpecker* o o o o
FLYCATCHERS Sp S F W ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher r - r - ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee* c c u u ___ Yellow-bellied Flycatcher r - r - ___ Acadian Flycatcher* o u u - ___ Alder Flycatcher* r - r - ___ Willow Flycatcher r - r - ___ Least Flycatcher o - o - ___ Eastern Phoebe* c c c o ___ Great Crested Flycatcher* c c r - ___ Eastern Kingbird* c c o -
LARKS Sp S F W ___ Horned Lark* o o o o
SWALLOWS Sp S F W ___ Purple Martin* c c o - ___ Tree Swallow* c c c - ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow* u c u - ___ Bank Swallow o - - - ___ Cliff Swallow* c c o - ___ Barn Swallow* c c u -
JAYS, CROWS Sp S F W ___ Blue Jay* a a a a ___ American Crow* c c c - ___ Fish Crow o o o o
CHICKADEES Sp S F W ___ Carolina Chickadee* c c c c ___ Tufted Titmouse* c c c c
NUTHATCHES Sp S F W ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch o - o u ___ White-breasted Nuthatch u o u u
CREEPERS Sp S F W ___ Brown Creeper o - o o
WRENS Sp S F W ___ Carolina Wren* c c c u ___ House Wren* c c c - ___ Winter Wren o o o - ___ Sedge Wren o o o - ___ Marsh Wren r - r -
KINGLETS Sp S F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet u - u u ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet u - u u ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher* c c o -
THRUSHES Sp S F W ___ Eastern Bluebird* c c c c ___ Veery o - r - ___ Gray-cheeked Thrush u - u - ___ Swainson's Thrush o - o - ___ Hermit Thrush o - u r ___ Wood Thrush* o u r - ___ American Robin* c c c u
THRASHERS Sp S F W ___ Gray Catbird* c c c - ___ Northern Mockingbird* c c c c ___ Brown Thrasher* c c c o
WAXWINGS Sp S F W ___ Cedar Waxwing* c u u c
SHRIKES Sp S F W ___ Loggerhead Shrike u u u u
STARLINGS Sp S F W ___ European Starling* a a a a
VIREOS Sp S F W ___ White-eyed Vireo* c c u - ___ Bell's Vireo r r - - ___ Yellow-throated Vireo* o u o - ___ Warbling Vireo* c c o - ___ Red-eyed Vireo* u u o -
WOOD WARBLERS Sp S F W ___ Blue-winged Warbler o r r - ___ Golden-winged Warbler o r - r ___ Tennessee Warbler u - o - ___ Nashville Warbler r - r - ___ Northern Parula* c c u - ___ Yellow Warbler* o o - - ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler o - o - ___ Magnolia Warbler o - o - ___ Cape May Warbler r - r - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler u - u o ___ Black-throated Green Warbler o - o - ___ Blackburnian Warbler o r r - ___ Pine Warbler* o u o - ___ Prairie Warbler* u u o - ___ Palm Warbler o - o - ___ Bay-breasted Warbler u - o - ___ Blackpoll Warbler u - r - ___ Cerulean Warbler* o r - - ___ Black-and-white Warbler o r o - ___ American Redstart o r o - ___ Prothonotary Warbler* u u r - ___ Worm-eating Warbler r - r - ___ Ovenbird o r r - ___ Northern Waterthrush o - o - ___ Louisiana Waterthrush u u r - ___ Kentucky Warbler* u u r - ___ Common Yellowthroat* c c c r ___ Hooded Warbler o - r - ___ Wilson's Warbler o - o - ___ Canada Warbler o - r - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat* u u o -
TANAGERS Sp S F W ___ Summer Tanager* u u o - ___ Scarlet Tanager* u u o -
SPARROWS Sp S F W ___ Northern Cardinal* a a a a ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak o - o - ___ Blue Grosbeak* o o o - ___ Indigo Bunting* a a a - ___ Dickcissel* u u - - ___ Rufous-sided Towhee* c c c u ___ American Tree Sparrow* c - o c ___ Chipping Sparrow* u u o - ___ Field Sparrow* u u o - ___ Savannah Sparrow o - u o ___ Grasshopper Sparrow* o o r - ___ Le Conte's Sparrow o - o u ___ Fox Sparrow o - r u ___ Song Sparrow* u o o c ___ Swamp Sparrow u - u u ___ White-throated Sparrow c - c c ___ White-crowned Sparrow c - c c ___ Dark-eyed Junco a - c a
MEADOWLARKS, BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES Sp S F W ___ Red-winged Blackbird* c c a c ___ Eastern Meadowlark* c c c c ___ Common Grackle* c c a c ___ Brown-headed Cowbird* c c c c ___ Orchard Oriole* u u o - ___ Baltimore Oriole* u u o -
FINCHES Sp S F W ___ House Finch c c c c ___ Purple Finch c - u c ___ Pine Siskin# o - o o ___ American Goldfinch* c c c c ___ Evening Grosbeak# o - - o
OLD WORLD SPARROWS Sp S F W ___ House Sparrow* c c c c
ACCIDENTAL SPECIES Least Bittern Vermilion Flycatcher Glossy Ibis Scissor-tailed Flycatcher Sandhill Crane Bewick's Wren Whooper Swan Rock Wren Trumpeter Swan Water Pipit Oldsquaw Solitary Vireo White-winged Scoter Philadelphia Vireo Black Vulture Orange-crowned Warbler Common Moorhen Black-throated Blue Warbler Black-bellied Plover Mourning Warbler Ruddy Turnstone Connecticut Warbler Dunlin Swainson's Warbler Sanderling Henslow's Sparrow Baird's Sandpiper Vesper Sparrow Upland Sandpiper Lark Sparrow Franklin's Gull Lincoln's Sparrow Laughing Gull Lapland Longspur Black-headed Gull Pine Grosbeak Sabine's Gull Red Crossbill Least Tern Rusty Blackbird

Birdwatching is encouraged. For more information about bird behavior and locations, inquire at the Visitor Contact Center. PLEASE OBEY POSTED SIGNS. For further information contact:
                 Refuge Manager
                 Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge
                 P.O. Box J 
                 Carterville, Illinois 62918
                 Telephone: 618/997-3344

This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1994.  Birds of Crab Orchard National 
     Wildlife Refuge, Illinois.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1994.  Birds of Crab Orchard National 
     Wildlife Refuge, Illinois.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
     Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.
     http://www.npwrc.usgs.govcraborch.htm 
     (Version 22MAY98).

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