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Bird Checklists of the United States

Birds of the Cache River Wetlands and the Surrounding Area

small state map showing location

Ullin, Illinois


The Cache River Wetlands Project is a cooperative effort between governmental agencies, organizations and individuals to preserve and restore wetlands of southern Illinois. The project is an important component of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan and its Lower Mississippi Valley Joint Venture.

In its pristine state, the Cache River was 110 miles long and its watershed covered 478,000 acres and represented one of the finest wetlands systems in the Midwest. The river, including its associated forested swamps, shrubbery scatters, and open ponds, was and is famous for its abundant wildlife and fishery values. Historically, vast tracts of naturally flooded bottomland hardwoods provided resting, nesting, and feeding habitat for migrating waterfowl and a wide variety of resident wildlife.

Since 1900, hydrological changes by humans have damaged much of the natural ecosystem. Attempts to drain the wetlands have destroyed most of the original swamps and eliminated much of the habitat for the native plants and animals that once characterized the region.

The partners in the Joint Venture effort are attempting to reverse this trend by restoring as much of the system, as is possible and practical, to its presettlement character, thereby providing areas of maximum biodiversity.

Partners include:

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, which in 1990 established Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge with an authorized purchase boundary of 35,200 acres.

The Nature Conservancy, which is establishing the Limekiln Springs Preserve of 2,000 acres in the Limekiln Slough.

Illinois Department of Natural Resources, whose management authority includes the Cache River State Natural Area, including Heron Pond, Wildcat Bluff, Section 8 Woods Nature Preserve, and portions of Buttonland Swamp, totaling 8,214 acres.

Ducks Unlimited, which has established a 1,000-acre complex of wetlands and waterfowl sanctuary.

The English, or common names of birds are in accordance with the American Ornithologists' Union "checklist of North American Birds" revised in 1983. Lines between species indicate taxonomic orders.


Symbols used are as follows:

Season

S - Spring, March - May
s - Summer, June - July
F - Fall, August - November
W - Winter, December - February

Status

A - Abundant: species is easily detected and occurs in large numbers or conspicuous flocks.
C - Common: species is easily found in proper habitat in small to moderate numbers
U - Uncommon: species is not easily detected and usually occurs only in small numbers.
R - Rare: species is seldom seen, but may be present in small numbers in appropriate habitat.
X - Accidental: species is outside typical geographic range.
(-) - hyphen indicates species does not occur in the area during a particular season.

Habitat

Most species are more common in certain habitats than others. Under this heading, the habitat(s) where the species are primarily found are listed. When more than one habitat is listed, they are listed in order of preference. Nine habitats are recognized on the list.

f - farmed lands: row crops and pasture land.
h - human habitations: towns, farm buildings.
l - lowland forest: bottomland
m - mudflats: muddy regions at the edges of impoundments or ephemeral pools on low-lying agricultural lands.
ma - marshes: cattails, reeds, or other weedy areas that typically have standing water.
r - river or reservoirs: includes open water on lakes or impoundments, or on large flooded fields.
s - swamp: cypress/tupelo gum woods that are inundated with water for all or most of the year.
t - transitional: successional habitats ranging from weedy fields to shrubby pasture land and forest edge.
u - upland forest: wooded hills that surround the floodplain of the river and its tributaries. Principal tree species are oaks and hickories.


LOONS S s F W habitat ___ Common Loon R - R - r
GREBES S s F W habitat ___ Pied-billed Grebe U U U R r,s,ma ___ Horned Grebe R - R - r
PELICANS and CORMORANTS S s F W habitat ___ American White Pelican - - R - r ___ Double-crested Cormorant U - U - r
HERONS and BITTERNS S s F W habitat ___ American Bittern U R U - ma ___ Least Bittern U U R - ma ___ Great Blue Heron C C C U r,s,ma ___ Great Egret U C C - r,s,ma ___ Snowy Egret R R U - r,m,ma ___ Little Blue Heron U R C - r,m,ma ___ Cattle Egret U R U - f,r,m,ma ___ Green-backed Heron C C C - r,s,l,m,ma ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron U R U - s,ma,r,l ___ Yellow-crowned Night-Heron U U U - s,ma,r,l
SWANS, GEESE, and DUCKS S s F W habitat ___ Tundra Swan R - R - r ___ Greater White-fronted Goose R - R U f,ma ___ Snow Goose C - C C f ___ Ross's Goose R - - - f ___ Canada Goose C C C C f,r ___ Wood Duck C C C U s,r,ma,l ___ Green-winged Teal C - C C r,m,ma ___ American Black Duck C - C - r,ma ___ Mallard A C A C r,ma,s ___ Northern Pintail C - C U r,ma ___ Blue-winged Teal C - C U r,ma,m ___ Cinnamon Teal R - - - r ___ Northern Shoveler C - C C r,ma ___ Gadwall C - C C r,ma ___ American Wigeon C - C C r,ma ___ Canvasback U - U R r ___ Redhead R - R - r ___ Ring-necked Duck C - C U r,ma,s ___ Greater Scaup R - R - r ___ Lesser Scaup C - C - r,ma ___ Oldsquaw - - - X r ___ Common Goldeneye U - U U r ___ Bufflehead U - U R r,ma ___ Hooded Merganser C U C U s,r ___ Common Merganser - - - R r ___ Red-breasted Merganser R - R - r ___ Ruddy Duck U - U - r,ma
VULTURES, HAWKS, EAGLES and FALCONS S s F W habitat ___ Black Vulture U U U U u,f,s,l ___ Turkey Vulture C C C C f,u,s,l ___ Osprey U - U - r ___ Mississippi U U - - s,l ___ Bald Eagle U U U U r,s ___ Northern Harrier U R U C f,t ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk U - U U t,u,l,f ___ Cooper's Hawk U R U U t,u,l,f ___ Northern Goshawk - - - R t,u ___ Red-shouldered Hawk U C U U s,l,u ___ Broad-winged Hawk U U U - u,l,s ___ Red-tailed Hawk U U U C f,u,l,t ___ Rough-legged Hawk R - R U f ___ Golden Eagle R - R R r,f ___ American Kestrel C C C C f,t,h ___ Merlin R - R R f,t ___ Peregrine Falcon R - R X r,f,t
UPLAND GAME BIRDS S s F W habitat ___ Wild Turkey U U U U u,l,s,f ___ Northern Bobwhite C C C C t,f
RAILS AND COOTS S s F W habitat ___ Virginia Rail U - R - ma,t ___ Sora - U - - r,ma ___ Purple Gallinule U - U - ma,t ___ Common Moorhen R - - - r,ma ___ American Coot C R C U r,ma
SHOREBIRDS and GULLS S s F W habitat ___ Black-bellied Plover R - R - m ___ Lesser Golden Plover C - R - f,m ___ Semipalmated Plover U - U - m ___ Killdeer C C C U m,f,h ___ Greater Yellowlegs U - U - m ___ Lesser Yellowlegs C - C - m ___ Solitary Sandpiper U - U - m,ma ___ Spotted Sandpiper U - U - m ___ Upland Sandpiper R - R - f ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper U - U - m ___ Western Sandpiper R - R - m ___ Least Sandpiper U - U - m ___ White-rumped Sandpiper R - - - m ___ Baird's Sandpiper - - R - m ___ Pectoral Sandpiper C - C - m,f ___ Dunlin U - U - m ___ Stilt Sandpiper U - U - m ___ Short-billed Dowitcher U - U - m ___ Long-billed Dowitcher R - U - m ___ Common Snipe C - C U m,ma ___ American Woodcock C U U R t,l,u ___ Wilson's Phalarope R - R - m,ma ___ Laughing Gull X - - - r ___ Franklin's Gull R - R - r,f ___ Bonaparte's Gull R - R - r ___ Ring-billed Gull U - U U r ___ Herring Gull - - - R r ___ Caspian Tern R - R - r ___ Common Tern R - R - r ___ Forster's Tern R - R - r ___ Least Tern R R R - r,m ___ Black Tern U R U - r
DOVES S s F W habitat ___ Rock Dove C C C C f,h ___ Mourning Dove C A A C t,f,h
CUCKOOS S s F W habitat ___ Black-billed Cuckoo U - R - u,l,s,t ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo C C U - u,l,s,t
OWLS S s F W habitat ___ Barn Owl R R R R s,f,h ___ Eastern Screech-Owl U U U U u,s,l ___ Great Horned Owl C C C C f,u,l ___ Barred Owl C C C C s,l,u ___ Great Gray Owl R - R R u,s ___ Long-eared Owl R - R R f,t ___ Short-eared Owl - - - X u ___ Northern Saw-whet Owl
NIGHTHAWKS AND NIGHTJARS S s F W habitat ___ Common Nighthawk U U U - f ___ Chuck-will's-widow U U R - u,l ___ Whip-poor-will C C U - u,l,s
SWIFTS S s F W habitat ___ Chimney Swift C C C - h,f,s ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird U C U - u,t,l,s
KINGFISHERS S s F W habitat ___ Belted Kingfisher C C C U r,s
WOODPECKERS S s F W habitat ___ Red-headed Woodpecker C C C C l,s,u ___ Red-bellied Woodpecker C C C C u,l,s ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker U - U U l,u,s ___ Downy Woodpecker C C C C u,l,s,t ___ Hairy Woodpecker C C C C u,l,s ___ Northern Flicker C C C C u,f,t,l ___ Pileated Woodpecker C U C C l,s,u
SONGBIRDS S s F W habitat ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher U - U - u,l,s ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee C C U - u,l,s ___ Yellow-bellied Flycatcher U - R - l,s,u ___ Acadian Flycatcher C A C - s,l,u ___ Alder Flycatcher R - - - t ___ Willow Flycatcher R R - - t ___ Least Flycatcher C - U - t,u ___ Eastern Phoebe C C U - h,l,u ___ Great Crested Flycatcher C C U - u,l,s ___ Eastern Kingbird C C U - t,f ___ Horned Lark C C C C f ___ Purple Martin C C U - h,f,r ___ Tree Swallow C U C - f,s,r,l ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow C U C - f,r ___ Bank Swallow U R U - f,r ___ Cliff Swallow U R U - f,r ___ Barn Swallow C C C - f,h,r ___ Blue Jay C C C C u,l,s,t ___ American Crow C C C C f,t,u,l ___ Fish Crow U U U R r,f ___ Carolina Chickadee C C C C t,u,l,s ___ Tufted Titmouse C C C C s,l,u,t ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch R - R R u ___ White-breasted Nuthatch C C C C u,l,s ___ Brown Creeper U R U C l,s,u ___ Carolina Wren C C C C l,s,u ___ Bewick's Wren R R R - t,h ___ House Wren U R U - h,t ___ Winter Wren U - U C l,s,u ___ Sedge Wren R - R X ma,t ___ Marsh Wren R R R X ma,t ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet C - C C u,l,s ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet C - C U u,l,t ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher C C U - u,l,s ___ Eastern Bluebird C C C C f,h,t ___ Veery U - R - u,l ___ Gray-cheecked Thrush U - R - u,l ___ Swainson's Thrush C - U - u,l ___ Hermit Thrush U - U U u,l,t ___ Wood Thrush C C U - l,u,s ___ American Robin C C C C h,f,t,u,l ___ Gray Catbird C C U X t,l,s ___ Northern Mockingbird C C C C f,h,t ___ Brown Thrasher C C C U t,f,h ___ American Pipit C - U X f,m ___ Sprague's Pipit X - - - f ___ Cedar Waxwing C U C C l,s,u,t ___ Loggerhead Shrike U U U U f,t ___ European Starling A A A A h,f,l,s,u ___ White-eyed Vireo C C U - t,l,u ___ Solitary Vireo U - U - u,l,s ___ Yellow-throated Vireo C C U - l,s ___ Warbling Vireo C C U - l,s,h ___ Philadelphia Vireo U - U - u,l,s ___ Red-eyed Vireo C C C - u,l,s ___ Blue-winged Warbler U U R - t,u ___ Golden-winged Warbler U - R - u,l,t ___ Tennessee Warbler C - C - u,l,t ___ Orange-crowned Warbler U - U - t,u,l ___ Nashville Warbler C - C - u,l,t ___ Northern Parula C C U - l,s,u ___ Yellow Warbler C C U - t ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler C - C - u,l,t ___ Magnolia Warbler U - C - u,l,t ___ Cape May Warbler U - R - u,l,t ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler C - C C u,l,s,t ___ Black-throated Green Warbler C - C - u,l,s ___ Blackburnian Warbler U - U - u,l ___ Yellow-throated Warbler C C U - s,l,u ___ Pine Warbler R R R - u ___ Prairie Warbler U U R - t ___ Palm Warbler C - C - t,l,u,s ___ Bay-breasted Warbler U - U - u,l ___ Blackpoll Warbler C - R - u,l ___ Cerulean Warbler U U R - l,u,s ___ Black-and-white Warbler C R C - u,l ___ American Redstart C C C - l,s,u ___ Prothonotary Warbler C A U - s,l ___ Worm-eating Warbler U U R - u ___ Swainson's Warbler R R - - l,s ___ Ovenbird C U C - u,l ___ Northern Waterthrush C - C - l,s ___ Louisiana Waterthrush C C U - u,l,s ___ Kentucky Warbler C C U - l,u ___ Connecticut Warbler R - R - t,u,l ___ Mourning Warbler U - R - t,u,l ___ Common Yellowthroat C C U X ma,t,f ___ Hooded Warbler U U R - l,u ___ Wilson's Warbler U - U - l,s,u ___ Canada Warbler U - U - u,l,t ___ Yellow-breasted Chat C C U - t ___ Summer Tanager C C U - t ___ Scarlet Tanager C C U - u,l ___ Northern Cardinal C C C C t,u,l,h ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak C - U - u,l,s ___ Blue Grosbeak U U R - t ___ Indigo Bunting C C C - t,f ___ Dickcissel C C U - t ___ Rufous-sided Towhee C C C C t,u,l ___ Bachman's Sparrow - X - - t ___ American Tree Sparrow U - U C t ___ Chipping Sparrow C C C C h,f ___ Field Sparrow C C C U t ___ Vesper Sparrow R - R X f ___ Savannah Sparrow U - U U f ___ Grasshopper Sparrow U U R - f ___ Le Conte's Sparrow U - U U f ___ Fox Sparrow U - U U t ___ Song Sparrow C C C C t,ma ___ Lincoln's Sparrow U - U X t ___ Swamp Sparrow C - C C t,ma ___ White-throated Sparrow C - C A t,u,l ___ White-crowned Sparrow U - U U t ___ Dark-eyed Junco C - A A t ___ Lapland Longspur U - U U f ___ Smith's Longspur R - - - r ___ Bobolink U - R - f ___ Red-winged Blackbird A A A A ma,t,f ___ Eastern Meadowlark C C C C f ___ Western Meadowlark X - - - f ___ Rusty Blackbird U - U U l,u,f ___ Common Grackle A A A A f,t,h ___ Brown-headed Cowbird A A A C f,u,l,s,t ___ Orchard Oriole C C R - t ___ Northern Oriole C C R - l,u,s ___ Purple Finch C - C C l,u,s ___ House Finch C C C C h,f,t ___ Pine Siskin U - U U u,l,s,t ___ American Goldfinch C C C C t,l,s,u,f ___ Evening Grosbeak R - R R u,l,h ___ House Sparrow C C C C h,f,t

Sighting Notes
Date:__________________________________________________________________________

Time:__________________________________________________________________________

Weather:_______________________________________________________________________

No. of Species:________________________________________________________________

Route or area:_________________________________________________________________

Observers:_____________________________________________________________________

Remarks:_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

For additional information contact:
                      Refuge Manager
                      Cypress Creek NWR
                      0137 Rustic Campus Rd
                      Ullin, Illinois 62992
                      (618) 634-2231
This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  2000.  Birds of the Cache River Wetlands 
     and Surrounding Area.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  2000.  Birds of the Cache River Wetlands 
     and Surrounding Area.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated. 
     Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.
     http://www.npwrc.usgs.govr4/Cacheriv.htm 
     (Version 30DEC2002).

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