USGS - science for a changing world

Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

  Home About NPWRC Our Science Staff Employment Contacts Common Questions About the Site

Bird Checklists of the United States

Two Rivers National Wildlife Refuge

small state map showing location

Brussels, Illinois


Two Rivers National Wildlife Refuge, formerly the Bussels District of the Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge, is the southernmost refuge located in Illinois between the Mississippi and Illinois rivers. It was officially established in 1958 and consists of three divisions and a group of islands: Calhoun, Gilbert Lake, Batchtown and the Portage Islands. The refuge's 8,229 acres are comprised of backwater sloughs, ponds and lakes bordered by bottomland forest, farm fields and moist soil units. Although primary management emphasis is on the maintenance and development of this habitat for bald eagles and waterfowl, the wide diversity of habitat supports numerous species.

This list contains 245 species which have been observed in recent years. Those species marked with an asterisk "*" have been found nesting on the refuge. The list was developed following the most recent A.O.U. checklist.


S - Spring - March-May
s - Summer - June-August
F - Fall - September-November
W - Winter - December-February

a - Abundant: common species that is very numerous
c - Common: certain to be seen in suitable habitat
u - Uncommon: present but not certain to be seen
o - Occasional: seen only a few times during season
r - Rare: seen at intervals of 2 to 5 years
Solid lines indicate approximate taxonomic categories


LOONS S s F W ___ Common Loon - - o -
GREBES S s F W ___ Pied-billed Grebe c u c u ___ Horned Grebe o - o o ___ Eared Grebe* - - r - ___ Western Grebe - - o -
PELICANS, CORMORANTS S s F W ___ American White Pelican - - o - ___ Double-crested Cormorant* c u c -
BITTERNS, HERONS, IBISES S s F W ___ American Bittern u r u - ___ Least Bittern* c c - - ___ Great Blue Heron* c c c c ___ Great Egret c c c r ___ Snowy Egret r r - - ___ Little Blue Heron c c c - ___ Cattle Egret o r r - ___ Green Heron* c c c - ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron* c u u - ___ Yellow-crowned Night-Heron* c c c - ___ White Ibis r r - - ___ Glossy Ibis r - r -
SWANS, GEESE, DUCKS S s F W ___ Tundra Swan o r r - ___ Greater White-fronted Goose u - u o ___ Snow Goose c - c c ___ Ross' Goose - - - r ___ Canada Goose* c c c c ___ Wood Duck c c a c ___ Green-winged Teal c u c u ___ American Black Duck c - c c ___ Mallard* c c a a ___ Northern Pintail c r a c ___ Blue-winged Teal* c c c - ___ Northern Shoveler c o c u ___ Gadwall c o c o ___ American Wigeon c - c u ___ Canvasback c - c c ___ Redhead c - c c ___ Ring-necked Duck c - c c ___ Greater Scaup o - o o ___ Lesser Scaup a - c c ___ Oldsquaw - - o - ___ Common Goldeneye u - u c ___ Bufflehead u - u c ___ Hooded Merganser* u u u u ___ Common Merganser u - u a ___ Red-breasted Merganser u - u o ___ Ruddy Duck c - c c
VULTURES S s F W ___ Turkey Vulture* c c c -
HAWKS, EAGLES S s F W ___ Osprey u - u - ___ Mississippi Kite o o - - ___ Bald Eagle u - c c ___ Northern Harrier (Marsh Hawk) o c o - ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk u u u u ___ Cooper's Hawk* u u u u ___ Northern Goshawk - - o r ___ Red-shouldered Hawk u u u u ___ Broad-winged Hawk o o o - ___ Red-tailed Hawk* c c c c ___ Rough-legged Hawk o o o - ___ Golden Eagle r - o u
FALCONS S s F W ___ American Kestrel* u u u u ___ Merlin o - o o ___ Peregrine Falcon r - o o ___ Prairie Falcon - - - r
GALLINACEOUS BIRDS S s F W ___ Ring-necked Pheasant* c c c u ___ Wild Turkey* u u u u ___ Northern Bobwhite* c c c c
RAILS S s F W ___ King Rail u r - - ___ Virginia Rail u r - - ___ Sora* c u c - ___ Common Moorhen* - u u - ___ American Coot* c u a u
SHOREBIRDS, GULLS, TERNS S s F W ___ Black-bellied Plover o - o - ___ American Golden-Plover (Lesser Gol-Pl.) o - u - ___ Semipalmated Plover c - c - ___ Piping Plover r r - - ___ Killdeer* c c c c ___ American Avocet r - r - ___ Greater Yellowlegs c c c - ___ Lesser Yellowlegs c c c - ___ Solitary Sandpiper c c c - ___ Willet u - - - ___ Spotted Sandpiper* c c c - ___ Upland Sandpiper r - - - ___ Red Knot - o o - ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper c u c - ___ Western Sandpiper o u o - ___ Least Sandpiper c c c - ___ White-rumped Sandpiper r - r - ___ Pectoral Sandpiper c c c - ___ Dunlin u - u - ___ Stilt Sandpiper u r u - ___ Short-billed Dowitcher c - u - ___ Long-billed Dowitcher c - u - ___ Common Snipe c - c - ___ American Woodcock* c c c - ___ Wilson's Phalarope o - o - ___ Red-necked Phalarope r - r - ___ Franklin's Gull o - o - ___ Bonaparte's Gull o - o - ___ Ring-billed Gull c o c c ___ Herring Gull c - c c ___ Caspian Tern o o o - ___ Common Tern o - o - ___ Forster's Tern* o - o - ___ Least Tern - - r - ___ Black Tern c c o -
DOVES S s F W ___ Rock Dove c c c c ___ Mourning Dove* c c c c
CUCKOOS S s F W ___ Black-billed Cuckoo r - r - ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo* c c c -
OWLS S s F W ___ Eastern Screech-Owl* c c c c ___ Great Horned Owl* c c c c ___ Barred Owl* c c c c ___ Long-eared Owl - - - u ___ Short-eared Owl - - r r
GOATSUCKERS S s F W ___ Common Nighthawk* o o o -
SWIFTS, HUMMINGBIRDS S s F W ___ Chimney Swift* c c c - ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird* c c o -
KINGFISHERS S s F W ___ Belted Kingfisher* c c c o
WOODPECKERS S s F W ___ Red-headed Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Red-bellied Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker u - u o ___ Downy Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Hairy Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Northern Flicker (Common Flicker)* c c c c ___ Pileated Woodpecker* c c c c
FLYCATCHERS S s F W ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee c c c - ___ Yellow-bellied Flycatcher u - u - ___ Acadian Flycatcher c c c - ___ Alder Flycatcher r r - - ___ Willow Flycatcher* o o - - ___ Eastern Phoebe u u u - ___ Great Crested Flycatcher* c c c - ___ Eastern Kingbird* c c c -
LARKS S s F W ___ Horned Lark* c c c c
SWALLOWS S s F W ___ Purple Martin* c c c - ___ Tree Swallow* c c a - ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow* c c c - ___ Bank Swallow* c c c - ___ Cliff Swallow o o o - ___ Barn Swallow* c c c -
JAYS, CROWS S s F W ___ Blue Jay* c c c - ___ American Crow* c c c c ___ Fish Crow o o - -
CHICKADEES S s F W ___ Black-capped Chickadee* c c c c ___ Tufted Titmouse* c c c c
NUTHATCHES S s F W ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch r - r - ___ White-breasted Nuthatch* c c c c
CREEPERS S s F W ___ Brown Creeper u - u o
WRENS S s F W ___ Carolina Wren* c c c c ___ House Wren* o o - - ___ Winter Wren - - o o ___ Sedge Wren* u u u - ___ Marsh Wren* r r r -
KINGLETS S s F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet u - u o ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet u u u r ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher* c c - -
THRUSHES S s F W ___ Eastern Bluebird* u c u u ___ Veery u - u - ___ Gray-cheeked Thrush u - u - ___ Swainson's Thrush u - u - ___ Wood Thrush* o - - - ___ American Robin* c c c o
THRASHERS S s F W ___ Gray Catbird* c c u - ___ Northern Mockingbird* c c c c ___ Brown Thrasher* c c c o
PIPITS S s F W ___ American Pipit (Water Pipit) o - o -
WAXWINGS S s F W ___ Cedar Waxwing* u u u u
SHRIKES S s F W ___ Loggerhead Shrike r r r r
STARLINGS S s F W ___ European Starling* c c c -
VIREOS S s F W ___ White-eyed Vireo* c c c - ___ Solitary Vireo u - u - ___ Yellow-throated Vireo u u - - ___ Warbling Vireo* c c c - ___ Red-eyed Vireo* c c c -
WOOD WARBLERS S s F W ___ Golden-winged Warbler o - o - ___ Tennessee Warbler c - u - ___ Orange-crowned Warbler u - u - ___ Nashville Warbler c - u - ___ Northern Parula* c c u - ___ Yellow Warbler* c c u - ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler c c - - ___ Magnolia Warbler u - u - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler c - c o ___ Black-throated Green Warbler c - c - ___ Yellow-throated Warbler o - - - ___ Pine Warbler o - - - ___ Palm Warbler c - c - ___ Blackpoll Warbler u - u - ___ Cerulean Warbler* u o - - ___ Black-and-white Warbler u - u - ___ American Redstart* c c c - ___ Prothonotary Warbler* c c c - ___ Worm-eating Warbler - - u - ___ Ovenbird u - u - ___ Northern Waterthrush c - u - ___ Louisiana Waterthrush c - u - ___ Kentucky Warbler* u u u - ___ Mourning Warbler r - r - ___ Common Yellowthroat* c c c - ___ Wilson's Warbler u u - - ___ Canada Warbler u u - - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat* u u u -
TANAGERS S s F W ___ Summer Tanager* u u - - ___ Scarlet Tanager* u u - -
GROSBEAKS, BUNTINGS S s F W ___ Northern Cardinal* c c c c ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak u - u - ___ Indigo Bunting* c c c - ___ Dickcissel* c c c -
TOWHEES, SPARROWS S s F W ___ Rufous-sided Towhee u u u - ___ American Tree Sparrow c - c c ___ Chipping Sparrow u - o - ___ Field Sparrow* c c c o ___ Vesper Sparrow u - u - ___ Lark Sparrow u - - - ___ Savannah Sparrow u - u u ___ Le Conte's Sparrow r - u r ___ Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow - - r - ___ Fox Sparrow u - u o ___ Song Sparrow* c c c c ___ Lincoln's Sparrow o - o - ___ Swamp Sparrow c - c c ___ White-throated Sparrow c - c c ___ White-crowned Sparrow c - c c ___ Dark-eyed Junco c - c a ___ Lapland Longspur u - - u
MEADOWLARKS, BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES S s F W ___ Bobolink c - o - ___ Red-winged Blackbird* a a a c ___ Eastern Meadowlark* c c c u ___ Rusty Blackbird u - u u ___ Brewer's Blackbird r - u u ___ Common Grackle* a a a c ___ Brown-headed Cowbird* c c c - ___ Orchard Oriole* u u - - ___ Baltimore Oriole* c c - -
FINCHES S s F W ___ Purple Finch u - u u ___ Pine Siskin - - - r ___ American Goldfinch* c c c c ___ Evening Grosbeak - - - r
OLD WORLD SPARROWS S s F W ___ House Sparrow* c c c c ___ European Tree Sparrow* u u u u
ACCIDENTALS Brant White-winged Scoter Barrow's Goldeneye Sandhill Crane Black Scoter

Birdwatching is encouraged. Please check at the Refuge office for times and places of entry. Please obey posted signs. This leaflet was developed through the cooperative efforts of the Illinois Audubon Society and the Department of Interior, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. For further information contact:
                 Refuge Manager
                 Two Rivers NWR
                 Box 107
                 Brussels, Illinois 62013
                 Telephone: 618/883-2524
This resource is based on the following source:
Illinois Audubon Society, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1990.  Birds 
     of Brussels District, Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge, Illinois.  
     Illinois Audubon Society, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  
     Unpaginated.
This resource should be cited as:
Illinois Audubon Society, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1990.  Birds 
     of Two Rivers National Wildlife Refuge, Illinois.  Illinois Audubon 
     Society, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
     Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.
     http://www.npwrc.usgs.govbrussels.htm 
     (Version 30DEC2002).

Return to Bird Checklists of Illinois
Return to Bird Checklists of the United States

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/birds/chekbird/r3/brussels.htm
Page Contact Information: Webmaster
Page Last Modified: Friday, 01-Feb-2013 18:47:12 EST
Menlo Park, CA [caww55]